RTV 420 Review Materials

Note these are from the chapters to guide your highlighting and note take while reading.   You will also benefit from taking notes and studying the specific content we cover in class meetings.

Chapter One

The ______ media, or ______ media are collectively the traditional forms of human exchange that have been around since the advent of mass communication.  How do metaphors relate to what we interact with on a computer?  ________ is any combination of five components: text, graphics, video, audio, and animation in a distributable format that consumers can interact with on a digital device.  What is the purpose of text in a multimedia project?  When we embed text with a reference, it becomes _______, a clickable object that users can interact with to immediately jump to another page or screen.  A ________ is a short descriptive keyword or term about the subject of a written post or uploaded file--text that is entered on a web page or attached as metadata to a file using a text-based editor, that can be recognized and found through a digital search, even when not visible to users.  The term _____________ refers to a host of digital technologies that allow for the presentation of multimedia content in a nonlinear form.  The most popular professional NLE software programs are ___________.   ______ is the process of creating motion over time through the rapid projection of a sequence of hand-drawn or computer-generated images and falls into two broad categories: 2D and 3D.  What is Timothy Berners-Lee known for?  The program ________ is described in Chapter 1 as one of the first web browsers, that could combine colored images with text on the same screen.   GUI stands for ________.  What are considered to the "Three Generations of the Web"?   RIAs are ________.  Timothy Berners-Lee referred to what generation of the Web as the Semantic Web?  Who is credited with inventing the World Wide Web?  Be able to define the terms listed under 'social media.'  What paradigm shift has occurred with media?  What does the 'democratization of media' mean?  UGC means _____ and CGM means ______.  What are DMAs and how many are there?  What is Narrowcasting?  What does Lev Manovich's phrase “the computerization of media" mean for us?  What are the Five Principles of New Media?  A(n) ----- is a mathematical sequence or set of instructions for solving a problem.  What is the 'principle of variability?'   ________  is a term used to describe the merging of previously discrete technologies into a unified whole.  ________ services (such as Delicious) and news aggregators (such as Digg) allow users to rate and share the most popular sites and news articles on the Web.  The term __ was first used by Thomas Kuhn to describe a monumental change that would challenge the scientific community’s preconceived ideas and assumptions about natural phenomena.   According to Charles Wright, the mass media are the product of___ organizations that operate with great expense.  The term _____ is used to describe the methods of new media companies like Pandora Radio to deliver content to a niche audience with shared values and interests.  Nicolas Negroponte used what phrase to describe a radical shift during the digital revolution in the production of intellectual content from material to electronic formats.    ....ETC> study all similar terms and ideas from Chapter 1.  In all chapters -- the sample questions may make up less than 50% of test questions.

Chapter Two

Early computer were quite large, in part because of ________, the basic component of all electronic equipment (radio and television receivers, amplifiers, etc.) manufactured in the first half of the 20th century (the book erroneously says 19th), and that were bulky and generated lots of heat.    By the late 1950s, computers were down to the size of three or four large refrigerators, but they had a limitation—they were designed to run one program at a time, a process known as ________.  The first personal computer (called a microcomputer) was the _________ introduced by MITS in 1975.  Who founded the Microsoft Corporation?  What company created MS-DOS?  Who are the two main, well-known people who started Apple Computers?  Chapter 2 says the age of personal computing had arrived when the ________ was introduced.  Each 0 or 1 in a binary string of numbers is referred to as a(n) ----.   A string of eight 0s or 1s is called a(n) ------- . During a computer’s boot sequence, the operating system is loaded into ----- .   ASCII is gradually being replaced by ______.   The way a computer processes digital information today is similar to what 1800s invention?   A computer program that is permanently installed by the manufacturer on a hardware chip within a portable digital device (like a cell phone or digital camera) is usually referred to as ________.  The top three operating systems for mobile devices are ________.  On a personal computer the _____ is a large printed circuit board upon which the CPU, RAM, and other electronic components are attached or affixed.   On a personal computer the _________ transmits data from the computer to a video display (monitor).  On a very large percentage of all of the personal computers made today running Windows OS or Mac OS, ________ makes the CPU / processor.  For the processors that have multiple independent processors, the common number of cores is single-core, _______, ________ or ________.   The 1965 prediction that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits would double about every two years for the foreseeable future, and that for over 40 years has held true is referred to as "___________."   ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 2.

Chapter Three
A famous adage in advertising and marketing circles proclaims, “If you aim at nothing, you will _______.     _______ is a process that "involves the production of novel, useful products"--in class, we talked about it in terms of brainstorming, the IVES process and 'what ifs.'  To visualize what goes on in a communication process, we use a model that is a mathematical theory of communication designed by researchers in 1948, called the ________--many communication theorists consider it to be the mother of all models.   In looking at such a communication model, we noted in class that the ______ component is anything that interferes with the intended communication.   A ________ is a group of consumers a company has strategically identified as having potential to purchase and use its goods and services, but for media, you’re more likely to hear this referred to as a ___________.    The term audience is still used today by professionals working in the mass media, but the term doesn’t adequately fit the profile of those who increasingly turn to emerging platforms such as the Web, mobile media, and streaming video for consuming content, so we instead, we call them __________ .  The 'three Ps in video production are _______.    Who defined visualization as “the ability to anticipate a finished image before making the exposure”?--meaning, a good photographer can compose an image in her head before framing it in the viewfinder and releasing the shutter, and a director 'sees' a movie before starting to shoot it.  A _________ is a short narrative description of a project, providing the reader with a concisely written summary about a concept or story idea.  A ________ combines words and pictures together to communicate an idea--it's an organized panel of images and text used for previsualizing a linear or nonlinear sequence of actions or steps of a visual (movie or video) production.  Of script formats, the ___________ is ideal for the producers of radio and television commercials, music videos, promotional videos, education and training programs, documentaries, interactive narratives, and more and is one of the most common and versatile script formats used in commercial production today...while the __________ is the Hollywood studio script format used in the production of motion picture films and prescripted television comedy and drama programs.  Be able to identify terms and job duties of various production positions.  _______  is a term used to describe many types of created works that are protected by copyright, trademark, or patent law.  In post-production, a __________ is the first complete edited version of a program or a revision that occurs somewhere in between the first cut and the final cut.  UCD refers to ___________, more of a philosophy and a mind-set of developing interfaces like web pages than a step-by-step process.  The  "ISO 9241-210 standard" is based on what six fundamental principles of human-centered design?  The term _______ refers to variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity used to describe the shared traits of a user group or target audience.  The realization that "the best design is rarely achieved on a first attempt, but rather, will evolve over time as the designers and developers work their way through various trial versions of a mockup or prototype" is based on the ISO 9241-210 principle that the process of crating a design is _____________.     _________ is a measure of people’s experience with a user interface.   The UCD process can be broken down into what four phases?  What is a Needs Assessment?  _______ is a simple low-tech exercise often employed by designers to help them understand how users think information should be organized, categorized, or arranged within a site or application.  A _________ is a sketch, often created with a computer program, for previsualizing the structural layout of a new web page and its contents.   Once a wireframe design of a potential web site has been approved, designers will often create a more refined visual rendering known as a ________.    Wireframes and mockups are great for experimenting with the visual look and layout of a page or screen, but to test the usability of a fully functioning site or interface, we have to develop a __________.   ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 3.

Chapter Four 

______  is the method of putting form and content together.     ________ is an area of study that investigates the transmission of ideas and information through visual forms and symbols.   Visual communication involves the interaction of ______, the tangible essence of a work: the stories, ideas, and information we exchange with others, and ________,  the manner in which content is designed, packaged, and delivered for consumption.  The term _______ is a popular cliché for describing something that is visually appealing but lacking in substantive value.   The field of _________ is a theoretical branch of visual communication that deals with the nature of beauty and human perceptions of visual form and presentation.      Communication theorist ______________ is renowned for his classic statement, “the medium is the message.” 
________ is the strategic arrangement of visual elements within a two-dimensional space to form a unified and holistic impression.   ____ is a two-dimensional element formed by the enclosure of dots and lines   In photography, the design space is called the _________, the area of a scene that is visible to the camera at any given moment in time.  _______ shapes are so called because they resemble objects in the natural world.   _______ refers to the general hue of a light source and varies across a range from reddish-orange to blue and is measured in Kelvin units.    In composing on a screen the workspace’s width is measured along its _______-axis (horizontally), and its height is measured on its _______-axis (vertically).   The term _________ refers to the relationship between the width and height of a design space.   Our ability to perceive depth depends on our ability to make sense of the relative position of background, mid-ground, and foreground elements along the ______-axis.    ______ space of a design window is the portion of an image where visual elements (lines, shapes, forms, etc.) reside, and ________ space is the rest of an image, where no visual content exists.  The term ______ is used interchangeably with the term negative space.  The most basic representation of form is the ______, the starting point for all other elements of design.  Under Principles of Design: (a)   the principle of_____ is achieved when the visual subcomponents of a design coalesce to form a holistic impression, (b) The law of _______ states that objects are more likely to be perceived as related when they are positioned close together, (c) The principle of ________ encourages designers to position objects that belong together along a common edge or implied line, (d) the law of ______ states that the brain will perceive visual objects as belonging together when their style attributes are similar and uniform, (e) _______ is related to similarity and suggests that repeating visual elements such as lines, colors, shapes, and patterns help strengthen the overall unity of a design, (f) the principle of ________ suggests that a good design must have a primary focal point or center of interest... (etc.)   A _______ composition is achieved when the visual weight of objects is equally dispersed within the frame, producing a perceived state of equilibrium.  ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 4

Chapter Ten    
In photography, the design space is called the _________.    ___________ is the process of fixing an image in time through the action of light.   Digital cameras come in what three main varieties?  TTL stands for _______.   The imaging chain of a digital camera is made up of what four components?   Lenses with a single focal length are called ________ .    ________ lenses have a relatively short focal length, ______ lenses have a medium focal length,  _______ lenses have a long focal length, and __________ lenses yield the narrowest angle of view while offering extremely high levels of image magnification.   Since telephotos and macros are more likely than other lenses to add camera shake to your image, to help avoid this, a good starting point is to _________.  The _______ is an adjustable plastic or metal diaphragm that regulates the amount of light striking the image sensor.   The _____ is a movable curtain, plate, or other device that controls the amount of time the image sensor is exposed to light.  It is called _________ when the camera is using all the pixels on the image sensor to produce the image.  What uncompressed formats does Chapter 10 say prosumer and professional cameras usually offer?  Photographically, the ___________ is that instant when an action is at its peak, when it’s stronger than it was the moment before or will be the moment after.  ________ is the product of two variables: the intensity of light (as controlled by the iris) and the duration of contact with the image sensor (as controlled by the speed of the shutter).  An __________ is an electronic instrument with a light-sensitive cell that’s activated by partially depressing the camera’s shutter button. Why do experienced photographers prefer to compose through-the-lens? ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 10.

Chapter Five  
___________ is the area of graphic design that refers to the visual arrangement of text and images on a page.   It’s the job of a layout artist or ___________ to combine the various elements of visual information (text and graphics) within the page, creating a presentation that is both pleasing to the eye and easy to consume.   Programs like _______ and Adobe _______ are professional software tools used in the desktop publishing industry for the prepress layout and design of printed pages.  The __________ divides a page across its horizontal and vertical centers to produce four equal quadrants. A reader’s interaction with the text begins in the top left quadrant on the page.  The _______ is one of the most common page layouts on the Web--it encourages the user to begin reading in the top left part of the page, then proceeds to make a full scan from left to right across the first row of visual information, then make a partial scan of the second row.   The ______ is a variation of the Gutenberg diagram, where scanning begins with a full visual sweep across the top row of the page, the second scan flows diagonally through the center of the page in a downward movement toward the bottom left-hand corner and the final scan is a horizontal sweep across the bottom of the page.  The term __________ refers to the perceived ordering of content within a page by the reader.   The _______ is a mathematical construct that has been widely used for centuries determining the proportions of a visual space--it is defined by the numerical constant Phi, and suggests that the optimum visual space is a rectangle whose height is slightly longer than one and a half times its widthWhat are the five parts of a Grid? and then for each, define, like...A ________ is a uniform square unit of space created by the intersection of perpendicular lines in a grid.  The ________ is the simplest grid system, featuring a single column of visual information bordered by margins on either side of the page, and is also called the manuscript grid.   A _______ grid breaks up the page with vertical divisions from left to right, providing greater flexibility for integrating text and graphics within the page and come in many varieties.   The ______ was created to give web designers greater control over the presentation of visual elements in a page.  A _______ page delivers the same page layout and contents to every user viewing the page, while a ______ page is one whose content changes over time or with each individual viewing experience.  ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 5.

Chapter Eight 

______ is the visual representation of intellectual thought as expressed through a human language system.    ________ is a character or letterform created for the purpose of communicating written information through printing or electronic means.   The term _________ implies letters, but it also applies to other characters, such as punctuation, symbols, and numbers. __________ is the art of designing and arranging type.    _________ are decorative accents added to the end of a stroke.  The term ________ refers to the digital or physical means of creating or displaying that typeface in a particular style and size.   Times New Roman, for instance, is a ________, a set of specifications that make the characters look a certain way, no matter the size or medium, but PostScript 12-point Times New Roman is a ______.   Movable type was first invented in __________, but historians often credit _______________ as the starting point of the modern printing era.   _____________ refers to a typeface’s characteristics and can change depending on font size.   _________ refers to how easy text is to read in context, not as isolated letters, and depends on a variety of factors, including typeface characteristics such as italics, font size, style, letter spacing, line spacing, alignment, background, capitalization choices, and contrast.   The transition between the thick and thin areas of a stroke is called __________.   ____ typefaces have letterforms based on roman counterparts, while ______ typefaces have features that emulate handwritten forms.   In a row of type, the bottom edge of each character’s main body rests on an imaginary plane called the __________.   ________ are small marks located on the ends of a main character stroke.  Of the Transitional Typefaces, ___________ is one of the most ubiquitous and well-known.   How do typefaces and fonts relate to what your computer displays or the printer can print?   In readability testing for the Web, __________ consistently scores high marks and is one of the most popular screen fonts used for body copy on the Web.   ______ is a unit of measurement used to define the vertical height of a typeface.   ________________ is a technique used in raster (bitmap) editing to smooth out the edges of type.  _____ selectively varies the amount of space between a single pair of letters; _____ uniformly adjusts letter spacing across a range of selected text.  The terms _____ and ______ refer to the process of lining up objects or text uniformly along their tops, bottoms, sides, or middles.  A _____ is a matrix of evenly spaced vertical and horizontal lines that are superimposed on top of the design window.   When you use _______, as you move text close to a gridline, it snaps into place.    Adding a _______ is one of the easiest things you can do to add interest and depth to text objects and backgrounds.    Most designers suggest limiting the number of typefaces in a design to ____ (how many?).  While typeface can convey attitude, emotion, and personality, it’s the ______ that communicates ideas and information.   ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 8.

Chapter 6
In the field of information technology, a _______ is any system that supports human-machine interaction (HMI) or human-computer interaction (HCI).   Our book defines _________ as the reciprocal communication between the media and the users facilitated by various technology features; in other words, it’s the user and the media communicating with one another.  GUI stands for ______.   _______, which accept input and generate output in the form of web pages, are probably the most widely used GUIs.  A ___________ includes elements of windows, icons, menus, buttons, and scrolling bars.    ________ use touch screens as combined input and output devices and let users directly interact with what is displayed on screen by using one or more fingers.  The rise of __________ relies on technology progresses in machine learning of natural language and statistical data-mining techniques.  The wireless controller on a Wii system is an example of what type interface?  What term is used metaphorically to describe a feature that prevents users from getting lost in an interface?  A __________ is a reduced-size version of a larger image.   _____ is an  interface component or technique that gives users an idea about how much information to anticipate on a site and makes it easier for users to navigate through multiple screens of information.  On a form, a _____________ is used to allow a user to make a single choice from among mutually exclusive options. As we have noted before, _____ is the measure of people’s experience with a user interface. How do issues like learnability and memorability affect users with an interface?   What is the measure of how fast a user can perform tasks after learning how to use the interface?   ______  is a website technology that allows the foreground and background elements of a webpage to move at different speeds during vertical scrolling of the page.  ______ web design is an approach to web design whereby sites automatically conform to the user’s device and screen size across a wide range of digital devices carousel.   ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 6--especially note the Glossary at the start as a means of studying each chapter.

Chapter 7

In the web address http://www.focalpress.com, “http://” functions as which part of the URL?   “focalpress” serves as which part of the URL?       “www” functions as which part of the URL?    What is the TLD?    ______ refers to the tagging or markup system most commonly used to build Web pages.  In HTML, a symbol n the tag like </p> is referred to as the _______ tag.  The technique of placing one set of HTML tags inside another set of HTML tags.  A(n) ______ element such as the paragraph tag, typically deals with large chunks of information and usually begins on a new line.  A(n) _______ element is designed to handle small chunks of information, such as strong tags. 
The Internet protocol _________ is used for streaming media.   FTP stands for _________    A(n) _________ address is a 32-bit numeric string that computers use to identify each other over the Internet.   ______ is a common protocol for uploading files onto a remote network.  When publishing website, all files associated with the site should be stored on the server in the ___________.  _______ contains rules for controlling the appearance of a Web page?   review the basic html tags and such, like    <ul>     <ol>     <dl>     <li>     <div>   <p>      <h1>     to     <h6>   <a>      <img>    
<em>     <strong>     <style>    .....ETC.
ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 7.

Chapter 9

A(n) __________ is a two- or three-dimensional representation of a person, animal, object, or scene in the natural world. ______  is a computer graphics format that uses mathematically constructed paths to define a graphic’s visual structure, and ______ is an example of a program specifically designed for doing it.     A __________ is the smallest definable element of a raster image.   A digital technique for smoothing out the edges of jagged type by blending the color transition points, such as the pixels along the edges of a rounded letterform.  ________ is depicted as x:y and is an indicator of the proportional relationship of the width to the height of a digital display or screen.  Television and film images are able to simulate motion because of a phenomenon known as_________.  With the release of high-definition digital television, the aspect ratio changed from 4:3 to the popular widescreen format of _______.  ________  is a method of changing the size of a raster image by increasing or decreasing the image’s pixel count.  What does native resolution mean?  What are the common compressed and uncompressed graphics formats?  The property of a raster image that determines the number of bits used to record the color value of each pixel in a raster image is called________.    On an electronic display, ___________ is the number of complete scanning cycles per second, measured in Hertz.    Full HD video has a resolution of ____________ pixels.  The Digital Cinema Initiative (DCI) set the standards for which advanced HD format?
ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 9.

Chapter 11

____________ is the process of converting a digital file from one format (or codec) to another.  A(n) ____________ is a publicly released specification or set of specifications used in the design of a product, process, or protocol. _________ was the first compression codec designed specifically for storing music on a portable audio player. The ___________ initiative concerned itself primarily with developing a method for encoding and distributing full-bandwidth HD video to the home video consumer.  Prior to the widespread rollout of SD cards, ______ is a solid-state memory card format introduced by Panasonic in 2004.  The techniques of sampling was pioneered by British engineer Alec Reeves in 1937,who conceived of the process of ___________ for the transmission of speech over long-distance telephone lines.  A(n) ___________ is a unique kind of digital file format used for bundling and storing the raw digitalbitstreams that codecs encode.  The term ___________ refers to the transmission speed of a compressed audio stream during playback expressed in kilobits per second (Kbps).  ______  is a multimedia container format released by Apple Computer in 1991. A(n) ___________ is a computer program or algorithm designed for encoding and decoding audio and/or video into raw digital bitstreams.   _______  is currently one of the most popular file formats  for encoding full-bandwidth HD video for distribution through video sharing sites such as YouTube or Vimeo.  ___________ is a term used to describe the method a device or software application uses to numerically represent a multimedia asset in binary form.  ______  refers to the number of bits used to encode the value of a given sample.   The acronym FWIGSS refers to _________.  The process of recording a digital audio and video signal directly to disk is broadly referred to as _________.  'Color books' define what?  How are  RED Digital Cinema Cameras unique? ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 11.

Chapter 12

______ is a natural phenomenon that involves pressure and vibration.   The term used as a visual reference to how well a microphone picks up sound within 360° of its central axis.  The input level of a recorded audio signal source in a sound project. __________ is a feature included on many recording devices to automatically adjust the preamp level of an incoming microphone signal.  What type of connector do we use in audio that provides a balanced connection?   Using balanced audio cables for sound transmission offers what advantages over unbalanced?  What microphone type requires a power supply to operate?   The +48V option on a video camera or other equipment provides what?   The usual term used for the microphone type that features the narrowest pickup pattern.   If too much amplification is applied to an audio signal, waveform distortion can occur causing a phenomenon called  ________.   EQ stands for _______.  A device is used to adjust frequency in an audio processing system. Professional  microphones use a __________ element to convert sound into an electrical signal.  The frequency of a sound wave is measured in __________ and the amplitude is measured in __________.   A __________ is a physical or virtual component in an audio processing system that displays the strength of an audio signal in decibel units.  This difference in loudness from the quietest point to the loudest in an audio recording is called  _______ ETC> study all terms and ideas from Chapter 12.

Chapter 13

Videographers use the term ______ when referring to the amount of negative space between an on-camera subject and the left or right edge of the video frame.  In filmmaking, _____ is a term that describes the number of shots and camera angles used to capture a scene or build a sequence.  In television production, the phrase ____________ is used to describe audio captured on location during the time of a video or film recording, such as in a sound bite.   An edited series of individual shots that promotes a sense of continuous action or narrative flow is called a _______.     _______ is a term used to describe individual shots that are intentionally acquired to enhance or illustrate the audio portion of a visual narrative.   In three-point lighting, which light source is used to compensate for falloff?   In three-point lighting, which light source is typically the brightest and is used to highlight the shape of the subject?    A _____ is a light modification tool used to diffuse the beam from a light source and soften its cast.   A ____________ is a light modification tool used to block out direct light or prevent spill light from striking the subject.  ______ is a reference to motion within the frame that is produced through the movement of the camera during shot acquisition.   Based on the importance of good pre-production, before heading out on a shoot, a videographer should take time to think ahead and construct a _______, where you write down everything you can think of that visually relates to your story and think deeply about what shots might flow together in an edited sequence.
A ____________ is the smallest standalone component in a visual time-based narrative.  __________ refers to an edited series of individual shots that promotes a sense of continuous action or narrative flow frame.  In film grammar, a _______ shot is one that reveals to the viewer what the subject is seeing through his or her own eyes.   A shot composed from above the subject looking down is called a _______.  The movement of the entire camera and support system forward or backwards in a relatively straight line is called a(n) ______.  The movement of the entire camera and support system to the left or right along a curved path is called a(n)________.   The 180-degree rule requires that cameras shooting from different angles be placed _____ in order to preserve directional continuity when the shots are edited together into a sequence.   Any of the camera movement terms could be covered, like-- a _______ move is achieved by rolling the entire camera and pedestal forward or backward in a relatively straight line, or a _____ is a lateral movement of the entire camera from left to right (or vice versa) in a relatively straight line.   ETC> study all terms and ideas from the Chapter.

Chapter 14
______ is the term used for video source material that’s used to fill holes in a video  timeline or provide visual support for the aural narrative.   ____ is a term used to describe a wide range of practices and techniques that editors use to achieve smooth and natural transitions from shot to shot over time.    ___ are the raw project assets (video or audio streams) that are created or acquired prior to the start of an editing session.  _____ is an NLE background process that occurs when certain types of edits are performed, such as the creation of a transition, effect, filter, title, or multilayer composite.  ____ refers to a type of edit that occurs by staggering the beginning or end of a video clip with the corresponding audio clip. ____ is the process of combining two or more video tracks together to form a new holistic image or visual effect. ____ is the audio version of compositing—the act of combining multiple audio sources in editing. The ___________ is a virtual interface component in NLE software that identifies your position within a time-based clip or edited sequence. A linear horizontal region in the timeline sequence used for arranging audio and video clips is called a ______. A _______ is a common type of television graphic used to identify the name of the person appearing on screen.   The act of listening to the audio portion of a clip as you move the playhead back and forth at various speeds within the timeline is called ___________.    ________ refers to a single frame of video that’s extracted from a clip and inserted on the timeline in an edited sequence.  A ____ is the abrupt transition from one shot to a similar shot with little to no change in focal length, camera angle, or camera position.   ____  terms refers to the purposeful alteration of a video or audio clip.  ___________ serves as a mask when superimposing one image over top of another. is an effect, such as a cut, dissolve, or wipe, that’s applied to the timeline at the beginning or end of a video or audio clip. ETC> study all terms and ideas from the Chapter.