RTV 440 Weekly Content / Major Terms and Concepts



Notify the instructor if you find content below that you cannot find in the textbook.

Book Intro and Chapter 2:  Locating the News

Key Words:   Advancing Stories, Assignment Board, Assignment Desk, Beats, Beat Checks, Direct Competition,
Indirect Competition, Enterprising / Enterprised Stories, Watchdog role of media, bias, objectivity, facts vs. opinions, Gatekeeper, Incident Report, Planned Stories, news releases / furnished news, Public Information Officer (PIO), Rundown, Spontaneous Stories, Stacking, Subjectivity, Time Code, Wires, Associated Press
Facts in the chapter:  This chapter says in a very real sense, every person in the newsroom thus serves as a _______.   A ________ is a person who decides what information will be allowed or denied to the news audience.  The _______ is the central hub of the TV newsroom.  The person who runs the Assignment Desk at a TV station newsroom is called the ____.  TV stations maintain an ________ that lists all of the stories that have been assigned for that day.  Of the three categories of stories the assignment desk will have, (a) ________ news consists of events that happen without prior knowledge during the news cycle (like major traffic accidents, burning building, murders), (b) _____ stories make up the bulk of stories on a daily newscast are known well in advance of the actual program (like city council meetings, political rallies), and (c) _____ stories are those that a reporter generates independently.  What type stories set newscasts of different TV stations in a local market apart from one another?  A _____ is a spreadsheet that outlines the elements of a TV newscast, including stories, anchors and running time of each element.  (Note the 11 pm newscast would refer to our time zone's 10 pm newscast.)  The dominant U.S. 'wire service' is __________. Where do we get news information?  _______  a story means finding a new development or angle for an ongoing story to make it relevant for the viewers.  Doing ______ means making phone calls made to law enforcement officials in the area, starting with the city's police department and the county sheriff's office and similar area organizations that might have information that could be a news story.  PIO stands for _____, and what is this person's role?
To write up a basic news story, we have to answer what six fundamental questions?   A _______ (also called furnished news) is official information sent out from an organization that was prepared for distribution to the media to promote or publicize something about the organization.  When a TV station receives a press release, it may be for something upcoming, and so we keep a _______ of them, that are folders or computer files used by the assignment editor to keep track of stories that may be covered in the future.  The chapter says _____ is often the simplest (yet most overlooked) source for a story idea.
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.



Chap. 3 Developing Stories
Key Words:   Accuracy, Advancing Stories, Background, Briefings, Confidentiality, Double Sourcing, Leaks, Localization, Pack Reporting, Trial Balloons, Triple Sourcing, Stacking, Assignment Board, beat check, wire
Facts in the chapter:   _______ the story means putting out the most recent information, plus looking ahead to what's happening next.  What's the difference in updating a story compared to advancing a story?  _____ reporting is the mentality of only speaking to officials and basically transcribing the same information that every other reporter also receives. The idea of ______ means developing distant news ideas into stories with local impact, that could justify putting them into the 'A' Block of the TV newscast. Chapter 3 says news tips from viewers are usually the result of ______.   A reporter's right to protect confidential sources has often been tested in the courts, and with this, how protected are reporters in doing so?   Double sourcing or triple sourcing refers to what and is done for what reason?  What strategy for gaining news story sources was once considered good but is not as effective today?   Information from an unidentified source in the government, political, or corporate world is known as a _____, while a _____ is one that has the endorsement of the White House, the mayor, or some other government official or agency to which the story is related.  When government officials give information to reporters but insist that neither the officials nor the agencies they represent be identified, such meetings are called ________.
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.

Chapter 10  Interviewing
Key Words:    Bite / sound bite, leading questions, Man-On-the-street Interviews (MOS), Off the Record, Phone Interviews, Phrasing, Reversals, Talking Heads, Tough Questions, Warming Up
Facts in the chapter: The goal in doing an interview is for the reporter to ______.  Before the interview, journalists should first always ______.  What are interviews expected to do?   ______ the subject of an interview gives the person being interviewed time to collect his or her thoughts, usually ensuring a smoother interview--and without it, the interviewee might be caught by surprise.   In a non-investigative situation, the main reason for interviewing people is to ______.  As you are required to do, our book says one simple trick for reporters is when starting an interview is to ask the interviewee to ________, the benefit of which includes being able to double-check the audio level and for lower-thirds graphics during the newscast.   What are the typical technical needs for doing a video interview?  What should the reporter do with a guest instead of having a boring background during the interview?  Options to “yes” or “no” questions.  What are leading questions?  When are leading questions acceptable?  What does Chapter 1- say about arriving at an interview with questions ready?  What about listening and eye contact?  A difficult trait to overcome as a novice reporter is the reluctance to ask _____ in an interview.  What techniques allow asking an interviewee tough questions more easily?  How can you handle an interviewee when they take too long to respond in their answer to your question?  How do you keep control of the interview?  "Listening shots of the reporter" from an interview taken for editing purposes are called _______.   When should reversals not have the reporter smiling or nodding during the interview?   Most usable sound bites from an interviewee will last between ____ and ____ seconds long when used within your story. Veteran reporters conduct interviews while listening for _______.  What, for editing purposes, do they say is vital to not do during an interview?  How many are 'enough questions'?  What is often a good idea for the reporter to do at the end of his/her list of questions?  How do you handle 'off-the-record' requests?  What is information that is unattributable?  MOS refers to _____; how useful are they to a TV news story?  Can phone interviews be used for TV news?   Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.

Chapter 4:   Collecting Information from Real and Virtual Documents
_______ is the most common method of gathering information.  How has the Internet improved researching news?  Although the internet is a valuable weapon for any reporter, it cannot replace ________.   What web site do they suggest reporters use to check out who owns a domain name?  .ca for Canada .no for Norway and .tv for  Tuvalu are county code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) or what the book calls _______ domain suffixes.  While there are several websites that connect journalists to experts, authorities, and spokespersons in a wide variety of topics, our book says one excellent website is ______. that allows journalists to search for experts on a range of subjects. In addition to standard websites, the number of __________ web-sites has exploded in the past decade and offer options for news research.  How does social media help in news gathering and news coverage?  The phrase _________ is associated most commonly with governmental documents, such as agendas for meetings or lists of official procurements.   FOIA stands for ______.  Freedom of information laws have been dubbed ________ laws because they are designed to shed light on the workings of government.  What is a government agency required to do after request for government documents?   How many exemptions are there to the FOIA that if applicable do not require release of the requested documents?  What major reason would a document be except?  How are state laws different?  How does a reporter file an FOIA request?  The FOIA allows  the agency _____ days to respond to a request, and if an FOIA request is denied, the requester can file an appeal with the agency, which must be answered within _____ days.  The The _____ forbids the government from disclosing information in its files pertaining to individuals.   Governmental records are divided into what two categories?  The chapter says government publications found at public and university libraries that are particularly useful to journalists are the reports issued by the _______ Office.  What are the other major federal government publications noted?  What are other major sources of records, as found in business publications and public records?
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.

Chap. 1 ... KEY WORDS
Gatekeeper role, watchdog function, liberal / conservative / moderate points of view, media bias, ambush interview, conflict of interest, fair comment & criticism (related to libel lawsuits), False Light (not recognized in Texas), file footage, gratuities, jump cut, libel, privilege, reenactment, reverse question, reversal, truth, Video News Releases (VNR).
Always take good notes in class.
Facts in the chapter: 
_______ means writing and reporting in a manner that is as objective and fair as possible, despite any personal feeling, belief, or attitude on the subject. ________ laws differ from state to state, but essentially writers or reporters can be sued for it if anything they falsely write or report harms someone's reputation. Although not recognized in Texas, ______ is when content of a story creates a false impression of someone they have no connection with and that harms them.

______ and ______ are both forms of defamation; in Texas it all falls under Libel law.   Of the three typical defenses against libel, ______ is the best defense, although publishing true statements may still land you before a judge.   Of the three typical defenses against libel, _____ covers areas such as legislative and judicial hearings and debates and documents that are done by a government official that you might report about.   Of the three typical defenses against libel, _____ happens when a reporter makes opinion comments about public officials, performers, sports figures, and others who attract public attention.
What are some of the ethical limits our chapter suggests?   There seem to be no laws against using a hidden camera to videotape something that is going on ____ (where?), based on the _____ doctrine.  In regard to hidden microphones, the book says federal law forbids their use unless ______.    One interview technique rarely used by broadcast journalists is the ______ interview, where the reporter surprises the interviewee on camera.   How should newsrooms handle gratuities or gifts?  The chapter says it may be (or appear to be) a _______  if a hotel owner offer news people a free plane ride and accommodations to promote a new hotel, then for the reporter to maintain objectivity if covering a story about the hotel.  Properly labeled reenactments may be okay to some news people, but _____ never is, the faking of video or sound or any other aspect of a story, like “if you round up protesters at an abortion clinic who may be out to lunch and get them shouting again" to put into your story.  Should a reporter add “unnatural sound,” that is, sound effects to visuals for which they do not have the actual sound? In comparison, can you add 'room tone' or simply move some sound actually recorded about the story being covered?  What is file footage, and how should a station handle using it?   When tape must be edited for time purposes (which is almost always the case), the reporter or producer must ensure that the sound bite is representative of ______.  The chapter defines _____ based on editing interviews, saying they happen with the jerking of the head that occurs when video cuts are juxtaposed.  NOTE THIS EXAMPLE:  Restaurant lawsuit against CBS station-->"The end result? Broadcast journalists can photograph in public places, but if their behavior becomes overly intrusive, they also can find themselves in court."  HERE'S THE NOTE: this is an example of Limited Invitation and Private Property that will be noted in class.
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.


Chapter 5, Beats, Spot News, Reporting Assignments:     TV reporters spend most of their careers covering ______ news, that includes fires, accidents, holdups, and other incidents that occur every day, with varying frequency, in every city and town in the nation.  How is a beat reporter different from a general assignment reporter?  ... different from a beat check?    A ___ is a specific subject area in which a reporter may specialize.  What are the pros and cons of beat reporters?  Of the typical beat assignments, covering ______ is a little like covering politics.   The business beat has gradually evolved into the ________ beat, boiling down arcane financial data into information that can be used by the typical homeowner, taxpayer, and average consumer.  What are typical realities and expectations of business beat reporters?  What is the work in a Crime Beat like?  What role does the PIO play?  What are the elements involved in 'Navigating the Courthouse?' Are video cameras allowed during trials?  What is 'pool coverage?'  How is a civil trial different from a criminal trial? What are typical realities and expectations of Education beat reporters?   A _____ is a feel-good feature story placed at the end of the newscast to leave viewers in a good mood and to serve as a springboard into the next program.  What is RTDNA?  What are typical realities and expectations of Environment beat reporters?  What are typical realities and expectations of Health beat reporters?    (note the various sections here about covering different types of news)  What are some differences in sports and weather reporting?  _____  is one of the most controversial crimes that appears in newsrooms as a potential story.  How should a reporter handle demonstrations?  A _____ is a form of disaster but on a smaller scale.  What guidelines are given for covering violent stories?  Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.

Chapter 9 Fieldwork 
B-Roll, Camera Body, Cover Footage, Establishing Shot, Filter, Frame, Handheld Microphone ('stick mic'), Lavaliere Microphone, Lens, Mixed Light, Nat Sound, Pass, Primary Sound, Room Tone, Sequence, Time Code, White Balance
16-mm film versus video, ¾” U-Matic videotape in 1971, D______ has become king / why tapes will never be used as a source of storage or filming in news again.  Three standard components in every video camera.  Camera filters.  The chapter says every camera (professional ones--not our prosumer ones) has a built-in ______ to accommodate different lighting situations.  Light is measured in degrees _______.  Standard indoor studio light is ________(3200) degrees Kelvin indoors and typical mid day outdoor sunlight is ______ degrees Kelvin.  ______ is "video illustrating what the newsmaker is discussing."  What facts are discussed in digital video versus tape recording?  What does the chapter say many of the cameras used in colleges are difficult to use on the shoulder?   How should you handle mixed lighting situations?  _____ filters simulate sunlight and allow you to use your artificial light during the day to augment the natural sunlight already present.  Chapter 9 reminds us that ______ can destroy a story.   As we have also said avoid _______ and ______ until after you've shot your static shots, plus avoid them altogether unless there is some important reason to use them.  Consider composition carefully: shoot heads slightly ________, not right in the middle.   ______ shots do not work well because they lose the viewer's attention.  The reading says, just as we did, when framing an interview subject, the best practice is for the reporter to stand near the camera so the subject looks slight off-camera--this gives you, as noted in class, the ______ point of view.  Regular newscasts 'people shots' must get some _______ shots that will leave enough room for "supers."  (What is a super?)  They define __ as video illustrating what the newsmaker is discussing.  The term _____  defines a series of visual images used to illustrate the story.  Just as we did for the 'nat pop' open, what does the text suggest for establishing shots?  Good videographers shoot their footage in groups called __________, which are a collection of shots concentrated in a single visual setting.  There are ____ frames in a second of video, but _____ frames in a second of film.   As you record, your digital video camera is discretely marking your footage with _____ that appears as hour:minute:second:frame, like 01:52:03:13
The easiest way to manage audio recording is to record the primary sound, such as field interviews and stand-ups, on Channel ______, leaving the other channel free for recording ______ and ______.  What are he common newsgathering mics?  ________ are placed on handheld microphones; these are the square or triangular mini-signs that display the news channel's logo prominently on the mic.  At the end of shooting at a given location, it is customary for the videographer to ask for quiet while recording for a few seconds--this is when the videographer is recording _______.   You cannot depend on the camera's sound meter reading to tell you that sound is being picked up--the only way to hear if there is radio interference or microphone problems is to _______.  Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts.
   
Chapter 11 Covering Planned Events:     On a slow day with no breaking stories and little spot news, ________ can save a newscast.   ______ are the unique news stories to which the reporter has received an invitation, outlined beforehand with a press release, and that is a story that needs a reporter to fulfill its purpose of self-promotion.  What is, and what is the nature of, a press conference?  PRSA is ------.  As noted in class, as a journalist, your goal is to present stories with a large degree of ______, meaning you approach the subject matter as neutrally as you can. How should a reporter handle press conferences that are nothing more than opportunities to be a cheerleading mouthpiece for the organization?   How should a reporter handle political press conference?  A group at Harvard University measured voter interest in the 2000 presidential campaign and found that _____ (what percentage?) of the public were paying little or no attention.  The most important requirement for reporting on politics is remaining ______--regardless of how reporters feel personally about the candidates, they must maintain their _____. (issues as discussed in class about current American 'news' that is not.)
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--the test will cover the full reading.


CHAPTER 18

The chapter reminds us that at any given time, statistics show that well over ______ college students are majoring in broadcast journalism and mass media programs, with more than ______ entering the job market at the end of every fall and spring term.  What are the three primary components to your job portfolio?  In planning for what type of work environment is ideal for you after graduation, based on the idea of doing broadcast journalism, they say _____ market television stations are the starting point for most college graduates.   A ________is generally the first thing the news director will see when he opens your portfolio or email attachment.  The _______ is the hiring manager for most TV news operations. Be able to answer questions about cover letters and résumés.  The book says a ________ is typically a DVD (although online / digital versions are also now very common) with your contact information (name, phone number, address, email address) and a montage of your best clips, looped so the viewer can catch highlights of your work. <--In making one of those, the total amount of material should be no more than _____ minutes, and most news directors will only watch ______.  <-- Of the website version of these, the book says since the website is organic and can always be expanded, it is acceptable to put _____ on it. 


LIGHTING (only from notes)
  Three-point lighting, including three parts, kicker light, flat lighting, inverse square law, cameo lighting, limbo lighting, silhouette lighting, broad lighting / short lighting, color temperature including indoor / outdoor standards, white balance, lying to the camera, SPOTLIGHTS: Fresnel, Leko (Ellipsoidal); FLOODLIGHTS: scoop, broad / pan / strip light.  Quartz, HSF, HMI and LED lighting, incident and reflected light, incident and reflected (spot) meters, lux vs footcandles, contrast ratio, AGC, shader, specular highlights, catch lights, light stands vs. grids, C-stands and mafer clamps, scrims and gels (CTO and CTB), barn doors, cyc / cyclorama, greenscreen
Chapter 18 -- The chapter reminds us that at any given time, statistics show that well over ______ college students are majoring in broadcast journalism and mass media programs, with more than ______ entering the job market at the end of every fall and spring term.  What are the three primary components to your job portfolio?  In planning for what type of work environment is ideal for you after graduation, based on the idea of doing broadcast journalism, they say _____ market television stations are the starting point for most college graduates.   A ________is generally the first thing the news director will see when he opens your portfolio or email attachment.  The _______ is the hiring manager for most TV news operations. Be able to answer questions about cover letters and résumés.  The book says a ________ is typically a DVD (although online / digital versions are also now very common) with your contact information (name, phone number, address, email address) and a montage of your best clips, looped so the viewer can catch highlights of your work. <--In making one of those, the total amount of material should be no more than _____ minutes, and most news directors will only watch ______.  <-- Of the website version of these, the book says since the website is organic and can always be expanded, it is acceptable to put _____ on it.  Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--the test will cover the full reading.


SPRING BREAK


Chapter 13:  Voiceovers, Packages, and Story Formats
Major Chapter Terms:  Advancing Stories, Assignment Board, Natural Sound, Package, Reader, Sound Bite, Split Page, Stand-up Bridge, Stand-up Close, Stand-up Open, Touch and Go, The Tricycle Principle, Voiceover
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.
Some Chapter 13 items:   What is the major difference between radio and TV news?  ____ are self-contained video stories that come from reporters in the field.   Both ___  and ______ are critical to a successful TV news script.    ______ are stories that are read by the anchors without the use of pictures; they're the least interesting of TV news types and are virtually the same as radio copy.  In ways can readers be used effectively in a TV newscast and why are they actually good?  In TV news writing, avoid clashes with the video--do not tell viewers what they are seeing, but instead _________ .   The simplest type of video story is the _______.    What tips are given for scripting a VO story?   Essentially a VO with a sound bite woven into it might be called a ____, ____ or _____ or as we are creating and have called it, a _______.  OC, like ....expects the event to attract thousands" stands for ______, while the O/C as in (Andrea O/C) stands for _______.  Why is a reporter returning from the field learning his/her story had been “downgraded” to a VO-SOT an irritation?  The format for a TV script is known as the ______, with _____ in the left column and ______ in the right. SIL stands for _____; SOT stands for ______; 
_____ indicates that names, titles, and other information are superimposed over footage or graphics to identify newsmakers, locations, and various other pictures appearing on TV screen, but many stations use the term _______ or the abbreviation VG (video graphic) instead of that.  ESS stands for _______.   Editors always “_______ the tape” or what we would call add _____, meaning always cutting in more footage than the writer requests.   When an anchor reads a final sentence about a package after the OC, that final sentence is called a ______ .   The foundation of any TV newscast is its _____.  Even on slow days, packages rarely run longer than ______ seconds.  What is involved in and important in the steps of creating a package?  After describing the standard process of creating a package, the chapter says another strategy is counterintuitive; instead of concentrating on the pictures, the reporter builds _______ first.   The best reason for a reporter to appear in a story is to ______.  The three types of stand-ups are _____, and the most common is ______.   CNN Newsource and other news services often distribute packages as “________” where the reporter begins the story with a stand-up open, allowing the news anchors to toss directly to the prerecorded segment as if the reporter is live in the field.  What challenges are there in doing effective stand-ups?  What is the tricycle principle?  .... and anything else from the chapter ...  (plus take notes over lighting)



Chapter 14 & 15: Producing TV News and Producing Radio News   

 AUDIO OVERVIEW PPT  & AUDIO REVIEW PPT & Chap. 14/15 Producing PPT and review

Major Chapter Terms:  Ad-Libs, EP, Producer, Associate Producer, Rundown, Back Timing, Balancing the Anchors, Blocks, Bumps, Teasers, Clusters, Field Producer, Gatekeeper, Kicker, Leads, Line Producer, Live Shots, News Hole, Traffic, Peaks and Valleys Teases, Toss, Web Producer
Some other Chapter 14 items:   In general, a 30-minute newscast contains _____ minutes of commercials, leaving only ____ minutes for news.  TV newscast producers must deal with what interrelated factors constantly?   _______ lay out the newscast, decide what stories will lead the newscast, and determine the flow of the rest of the stories so that they best hold the attention of the viewers.    KYTV's Ethan Forhetz says that the most important quality of a good producer is ______ .   The ______ is responsible for the long-term look of the newscasts, determining, in consultation with the news director and the station's general manager, the set, the style of the opening and close, the choice of anchors, the philosophy, and other details of all the station's newscasts. (NOT in the chapter, but the ________ is the 'business manager' of a TV station's news department, overseeing the overall operation and determining how the budget is allocated.)  The term ______ is also used to refer to a news show producer.  The lineup of stories as they will run within a newscast is called the _______.  While sometimes the main job might be writing stories, the chapter says __________ help reporters put together packages when they are in a rush or have been assigned to a second story, cut sound bites and pick video for the packages, or, when a package is reduced to a voiceover, may handle all the details, including writing the script.   ... note details about producing ... On a rundown:  _____ shows where a story appears in the newscast, _____ short for “status,” it shows if the story is approved for air, _____ is a two- or three-word description or title of the story, ______ is estimated run time, used by producers to predict how much time a story will take in the newscast, and ___ refers to the cumulative time of all stories thus far in the rundown.
... note and study the various terms related to producing the newscast ...
Always read each chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.
Chapter 15:   Major Terms--Actualities, Futures File, Headlines, Lead-ins, Pad Copy, Teases, Voice Track, Wraparound
Top radio groups owners:  Clear Channel (iHeart Media), Infinity, Cox, Entercom -- the chapter lists the top 2.  Why is there a concern about the impact of these group owners on public service?  What seem to be the "four places where you still hear radio news"?  Where does the debate lean in the question of whether the news should provide the kind of information that people need to know or the information they want to know?  What role do beat checks play in radio news?  'Wire copy' usually refers to material that comes from what service?  Radio newswriters say that the first stories they write are those that will not change--working in this way is called _______.  What overall goes into producing a radio newscast?  What determines length of a story?  Most newscasters read approximately ____ or _____ lines of copy per minute.  What we call sound bites in TV news may also be called that in radio, but also may be called ________.   The combination of sound and words, using the voice of the newscaster or reporter at the beginning and end of a story or report and the voice of the newsmaker in the middle, is known as a _______ .   Every sound bite, wraparound, and report from the scene included in a news script must be introduced by a line or phrase known as a ______.  The short sentences used in a script to hold the audience's attention just before a commercial break are called ______.   ____are another form of tease--they come at the top of a newscast and should reflect the most interesting and exciting stories to be covered in the upcoming newscast.   Copy written for protection against mistakes in timing and unexpected changes in the newscast that could affect the timing is called _______.  Read the chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.



Chapter 6 & 8 Newswriting Mechanics and Writing News Leads:   We covered most newswriting basics early on, but these chapters are here now because most people do not write well, and this is to emphasize writing style and quality.
Why is broadcast news uniquely different from other media?    Every page of the news script must be identified, and these identifications are called ______ and are placed prominently on the script (or)  A ______ is a word or two that is written in the upper left hand corner of the page to identify the story.   A ______ divides a news script into two vertical columns. The left column is used for ______ direction while the right column is for the _______.  (Note that EZNews was bought by Ross and is still supported, but the Ross version is now called Inception News.)  What is known about news stations each having their own specifications, from graphics terms to using ALL CAPS or not?  Traditional punctuation taught in English composition may be ______ in broadcast news writing.  Some broadcast style standards are that (a) you should not use an ______ to indicate a pause or as a signal that you have eliminated part of a quotation because that could confuse anchors, and (b) never use a ________.  What do they suggest about rewriting wire copy? Writing in conversational style means writing for the _____, while for newspapers, stories are written for the _____.  For writing conversationally, study the Mike Liechty list of better words, like for Is currently—“is” is enough.  ______ is a standard broadcast writing process that helps you determine when words should be contracted, which words should be emphasized, how clear the sentences are, and how well the copy flows from sentence to sentence.   How do you rewrite to avoid information overload?   Whenever you use a specific time reference, such as tonight or a few minutes ago, place the reference _______ in relation to the verb whose action it describes.  What are the two ways to time copy?   Read the chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.  
Chap. 8 --  
_______ of a broadcast news story is comprised of the opening words that sets the stage for what's to follow.   What is a lede?   ________  is the most crucial element of any news report.   A well-crafted lead must do what three things?   The five Ws and H rule is a holdover from ______.    "Mayor Paul Savoy has met with reporters" would be classified as a _______ and would have what news value?   "Wheatland Mayor Paul Savoy says the city council has two budget choices this month—either raise property taxes or close two of the fire stations” is a _______ lead.   T or F:  A hard news lead is always appropriate to any story.  How do leads relate to the tone of your story?  Be able to define each of the types of leads described in this chapter -- AND start using them correctly in your writing.  What is involved in updating and reworking the lead?  Once you have the lead of a story, its foundation, you are ready to construct the rest of the story by _______.
Read the chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.
 


Chapter 7 Newswriting Style:   Broadcast news must be _________, _________, easily understood, free from technical jargon, brief, and deliverable to an audience that is likely multitasking.   ______writing is key to effective broadcast style.  In giving the example of a person with a long name and a long title, we're reminded that as in the news copy itself, the ______ and ______ must also be concise.   Titles are always used where in relation to a person's name in broadcast copy?  T or F:  In broadcast writing, the title and name of a person must always be used together.  T or F:  Names of the people involved in a hard news story should always be used in broadcast style writing.  What web site do they say can help with pronunciation?  What impact does market / service area have on content of a broadcast news story?  How are acronyms done differently for ones like PTA and FBI versus ones like MADD or NATO or ROM / RAM?   What's the rule about middle names, a person's initials, or maiden names?  What are the main challenges of foreign names?  What are the guidelines about using a person's age?  ... about marital status?   ...about race?   ...about numbers?   ...about capital numbers?  ...about punctuation marks?   ...about using web site URLs?  ...about using abbreviations?   ...about using contractions?  ...about eliminating long words? ...about conjunctions, prepositions and pronouns?  ...about adjectives and adverbs?   Why and how should clichés be avoided? What are the rules about grammar?  ..about active voice, present tense verbs?  ... about modifiers and relative clauses?   ...about verbs overall, and be ....ing verbs?  ...about verb tenses?   ______ is the source of a news story.  Newspapers use attribution at the end of a sentence, what is called _________.   Attribution can also be ________, that is, it can be mentioned in a second sentence.  What are the two viable options for quotes in broadcast copy?  What is the thought about saying “quote” and “unquote” at the beginning and end of a direct quote in broadcast copy?  In regard to expressing time in a broadcast story, the chapter says a story should never lead with the word ________.  In discussing the danger of overwriting time elements in reference to a future event, they say however you would say the day _________ is probably right.  ______ are phrases and words that signal relationships between sentences.  What are their recommendations for 'transferring to the web'?  Read the chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.


Chapter 16 Delivering the News:  For those interested in TV news careers, how long it takes you to end up at the anchor desk depends on what two factors?  Ask news directors what they look for in reporters and anchors and most will tell you ________.   To build credibility, the chapter lists what four basic steps, that require effort, but which credible anchors and reporters understand are vital in their job?  What 'appearance' factors come into play when a News Director is selecting an anchor for a newscast?   The term ______ has been in use since the 1950s in describing the most dominant person within a team of reporters in a TV news operation.  The book says: Ask news directors what they look for in reporters and anchors and most will tell you _______.   What is the device uses in TV news that makes it appear that the anchor is making eye contact with the viewer while telling the story?   In dealing with delivery, most students talk more quickly and at a higher _______ than they acknowledge. The easy solution is to simply slow down and relax. News directors look for people who speak “_______ speech” when they hire on-air personnel, dialects of "________" voices, which are considered “neutral” (undistinguishable dialect).  What is the standard advice in coaching young people, if they have a dialect that reflects a minority racial or ethnic background?   Most newscasters mark copy to help them remember when to _______ or to ______  as they read it aloud, and which also helps them control their ______  .      _______ allows your ear catches mistakes and detects poorly constructed copy that your eye misses, and also alerts you to any problems you have with pronunciation, articulation, and awkward speech patterns.   What main types of cosmetics and uses are discussed?  One evolution in the digital realm is the onslaught of ______.   At the end of the chapter they discuss what new delivery mode has carved a niche into newsrooms, and that is now a de facto standard with news reporters?  Continue reading the chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.


Chapter 12   Reporting Live:  The _______ of broadcast journalism is the greatest advantage it possesses over print media.  What do they say as the 'good' and the 'bad' of reasons for doing live shots.  How does radio compare to TV for doing live reports?  The best way to organize material for a live report is to use a ________.   Broadcast reporters, in anticipation of going live from the scene, must do what?  How is the production of the live report is handled differently between radio and TV?    Why is ad-libbing so important for live reporters?  Why is reporters writing down a list of key words or phrases in the order in which they want to cover their material not really ad-libbing?   The _______ is telling the story in conversational sense as if you were speaking to your family around the dining table. What are the challenges of ENG?   In advising how to keep your cool live, the situation of looking mystified because the reporter does not know whether she is on the air, and when the reporter actually says, “Are we on?” when in fact she is, sometimes can be avoided if a _____ is available for the reporter.  What is an IFB?  What does IFB mean?  What do they say is the most common reason why a reporter might lose composure on camera?  In regard to memorizing scripts, overall, it's unfair to ask reporters to try to recall more than _______ of a script.  How is 'using notes' viewed by news people when a reporter is doing a live shot?  When doing live shots, the field crew must make sure that the reporter can deliver the news without any background distractions--so avoid setting up in such a what that lets what happen?     _____ is "telling the story in conversational sense as if you were speaking to your family around the dining table."  A _____  is a story in which you hear the anchor talking while video footage is aired; the voice is aired over the visual images.  What 'similar sea change' do they say is occurring now, where reporters are now expected to not only produce live shots from the field, but also _______.  What are the five standard online programs listed, that are used on social media to put information in front of your audience?  Note this book, as many are, is WRONG in defining IFB, where the FB correctly refers to foldback, not feedback.  Based on what is CORRECT, IFB stands for ______.  Continue reading the chapter and make notes of all of these and similar facts--tests will cover the full reading.
Live Shots:  refer back to previous class notes-- What are the typical means of feeding a live shot in TV back to the station live?  What are the standard TYPES of live shots that a TV station might do, in terms of content within the live shot?  Note people have been using the term Look Live wrong--in the TV studio, a reporter setting up a story live is doing In Studio Live.  "Look Live" instead means what?  What is a wraparound?


Chap. 17 ...  As we noted in class, Nielsen Media Research lists _____ (how many?) television markets in the United States.  They say reporters in the smaller markets make close to $_______ annually.  Be able to define each of the News Positions listed, like Anchor and Assignment editor.   Be able to identify the listd skillsets listed for each position under:  News Positions and Basic Skillsets.  What does network / important to network mean?