SPC Course Sample Questions for Exams


Be sure to check back regularly  for updates and assignment directions.  This is subject to minor revisions as the semester progresses.


EXAM #1, CHAPTERS 1-8 and class content

Reading sample questions:  Chapter 1:  The text says a class 'capital S' speech includes a ----, an ----, and an auditorium with a large audience.    ------- is an event in which a group of people agree that one person, the speaker, will direct the event.  Scholars of preliterate societies remind us that ----- is the most fundamental tool of social organization.  Scholar Walter Ong identified a special feature of oral cultures: when the spoken word was the only form of preserving culture, speech had to be -------, and thus took the form of dramatic stories of intense conflicts between powerful villains and heroes.  Marshall MacLuhan and other media scholars coined the term ----- to describe the rekindling of a preference for intense, visceral, immediate kinds of communication.  Our text uses BCE to refer to the same time period that many people refer to as ----, and CE to refer to what is also commonly referred to as ----- .  In making reference to this time period, it was about ------- years ago that they say is the beginning point of formal theorizing about formal speech, by the likes of Plato and Aristotle.  Aristotle differentiated between what three genres of speaking?  Aristotle identified three persuasive appeals:  (1) ----------, the most fundamental, that refers to the intellectual substance of a speech, (2) --------, the motivational appeals to the values, needs, passions, and emotions of listeners, and (3) -------, that refers to the personal power of credibility of a speaker.  The five canons of rhetoric are:  -------.  Of the five canons of rhetoric, ------ is the most important.  Of the five canons of rhetoric, is 'the use of the body and voice, unobtrusively but gracefully, to project a compelling message.'   List and define the components of the  Two-Way Communication model.  Of the four prominent theoretical foundations of public speaking, ----- , identified with such scholars as Martin Buber, are more about the attitude of the speaker than the format of the communicative event.  Contemporary scholars Foss and Griffin are associated with the theoretical notion of -------- rhetoric, which urges speakers to pay less attention to trying to change their audiences and instead to invite listeners to explore ideas together and discover common interests.  Communication research in recent decades has focused on ------ construction of meaning, the perspective that the authors of our text use as the primary framework of the book.  Meaning is ----- is the recognition that no individual, sender or receiver, can control the 'true meaning' of a statement.  Meaning is ------ reminds us that words or messages alone cannot tell us the "true meaning" of communication.  We used the term ------ in class to refer to 'negotiating a preferred meaning'--and Chapter 1 also reminds us then that meaning is negotiated by discourse communities.  The three communicative resources we draw on for public speaking are : ---------- .   To be successful, public speaking requires the ability to ------ all three qualities of conversation, composition, and performance.  Think about questions along the way of reading that might assess your understanding of concepts, that might be True/False, like: "Effective public speaking is based on training speakers to follow a standard presentation style, approaching the preparation and presentation in essentially the same way each time." (refer to middle of page 19).  Of the four stages of learning of skills, ------ is 'when people have come to realize that they are doing something ineptly and need to improve.' (and similar questions for other stages).  Identify 'misconceptions about public speaking.'   The first two steps in the 'Five Steps of Public Speaking are -------.  The final step in the 'Five Steps of Public Speaking is ------ .

Chapter 2:  (continue looking for facts and concepts that might be good True/False questions). We spend many more hours of our day ------ than we do speaking, and Chapter 2 reminds us there is an important relationship between this and effective speaking.  The act of ------ is defined as a complex and active process of receiving, processing, and evaluating an oral message.  What are the steps in 'preparing to listen'?  'Start with the positive,' 'make important comments first,' and 'offer suggestions, not orders' are all components of providing ------ feedback.  One of the authors of this book came up with the ------ principle, which states that people's weaknesses are rarely the opposite of their strengths.  'Daydreaming, doodling and disengaging,' 'prematurely rejecting a message,' and '(being) distracted by superficial qualities of the speaker' are some of the common listening ------- .    'Listening at multiple levels,' 'listening between the lines,' and 'listening to the silences' are elements of ----------.  or, different question on same concept:  Listening to understand the whole person--in context, in the moment--is called ------ listening.  

Chap. 3:    T/F samples:  Every action has an ethical dimension; no decision a speaker makes is morally neutral.  The 'victim' of unethical behavior is not immediately obvious, so speakers may not honor the integrity of ideas and thus overlook them.  Effective speaking and ethical speaking go together.   It is inaqueate as a defense to claim that you did not know plagiarizing was unacceptable.   When you use information from a source but do not give credit to that source, you are plagiarizing.  Playing word games to create a false impression or leaving out some part of the 'whole truth' fall under what our book calls -------.  A technique useful to a speaker to discourage independent thinking is -----, where you imply 'everyone is doing it.'   Name-calling, testimonials and 'just plain folks' are elements of the classic ----- devices sometimes used by unethical speakers.    ------ is th unethical technique where the speaker carefully uses only facts or examples that bolster his or her position.  ------ is when the speaker, to make something more (or less) acceptable to an audience, ascribes to it characteristics  of something familiar.  

...  throughout these review questions -- typos have not been checked closely / adjust accordingly...

...  note that each exam may include, but is not limited to, questions like those posted here...

Chap. 4   T or F examples:  A speaker should accept some fear as normal with any public speaking situation.  "I'm afraid I'll make a fool of myself" is a good way to list a possible fear of public speaking.  It is unrealistic to be completely calm in every speech situation.  There are no simple ways to eliminate fear of public speaking altogether.   A survey done once, often still cited, found that people feared public speaking more than they feared a root canal.  To deal with fear of public speaking, it is helpful to write your fears down on paper.  The text notes that slight use of 'chemical aids' to relation for speaking, like alcohol or drugs, can actually be quite effective for many speakers. (etc.--as T/F examples)  In dealing with fear, the text suggests we "--------" our listeners, not 'perform for them.'  One way to deal with fear of speaking is to change the audience from "critic" to "---- ."  One technique for reducing fears is -------, replacing unrealistic or irrational feelings with  more positive, logical, and realistic beliefs.  ----------- helps people overcome all kinds of fears by a systematic exposure of the stressor to the subject over time. 

Chap. 5:   The four phases of the creative process are -------.    A general rule of thumb is to plan to spend approximately ----- (how much?) of preparation time for each minute of a speech. The PERT systems and Gantt charts are components of structured -------- techniques used in the 'Planning' chapter.  Determining the order in which tasks must be completed is what professional project managers call "determining the --------."    During the preparation stage, writing skills come to the fore, but this does not mean that you -------.  Because a speech is delivered orally, it must be composed ------- .  Speaking with your voice rate and inflection all at one constant level is referred to as speaking -------- (as noted in class, not in this reading).    When you're giving yourself time to reflect on ideas for a speech, under 'common pitfalls,' they call this giving yourself time for -------- .  Putting together a schedule that allows you some breathing room means that you are, in setting up your schedule, allowing for an adequate margin of ------- .

Chap. 6:  Before you write a thesis statement for a speech, you first select a ----, often based on your own expertise, experience and interests.  "Enhanced (or 'heightened' as used in class)  -------" is the term we refer to the speaking style effective for almost all speaking situations, which h emphasize a relaxed, informal delivery, despite following a well-planned, carefully organized outline.   Speakers should select a topic that is both timely and ------- .  A topic of "I took a trip to Quebec" is timely but potentially ----, while "My trip to Quebec helped me understand my own culture by
contrasting it with another." is both ----- and ------.  Speakers should select a topic that is both meaningful and ------- .  The average speaker utters ------ to ------ words per minute.   Things like 'to inform,' 'to invite,' or 'to persuade' are what we call the ----- purpose of a speech, while 'To inform the audience about the role of the two-party system in American politics' is what we call a ------ purpose.   "A speech designed to entertain, inspire, celebrate, commemorate, or bond, or to help listeners relive a significant event" and is often called the “speech to entertain."  The four purposes listed in Chapter 6 are -------.   The --------- outcome occurs when you ask 'if your speech is a success, what will your audience do? /or/  'To have you buy this product' or 'to have you understand the workings of photosynthesis' are examples of what your audience will do if our speech is a success, which we call the primary --------- .  "A single declarative sentence that should encapsulate what you plan to say about your topic" is called a ------ statement.  (etc.)

Chap. 7:  "Speakers do not give speeches to audiences, they jointly create meaning ------- audiences."   Our text says ------ is the demographic category that relates to biological maleness or femaleness, while the term ------ refers to the socialized roles we have learned as appropriate for our sex.   ------- refers to a person's "identity with or membership in a particular racial, national, or cultural group and observance of that group's customs, beliefs and language."  In planning research, Chapter 8 suggests we progress from the ----- to the ------- .   It is likely that your classroom or workplace has at least three different generational groups, including -----, -----, and ------ (and be able to define each).   People of any ethnic group can tend to look at things from the standpoint of the group’s own history and culture, but taking the time to investigate other  cultural views can ------- .  Because people’s experiences, not their traits, shape them as listeners, there are no simple prescriptions for analyzing an audience’s  -------- .   Using a continuum or scale to judge others' reactions to your speech content, if the majority of your audience falls to the left on either continuum demonstrated in the text, that audience should be considered --------, and if it falls to the right, it is -------- and if it is in the middle, it is ---------.

 (questions provided for example, and as part of studying for the  test, so--only a small random selection from some chapters does not imply fewer questions from those chapters--be sure to look for terms and major concepts throughout the chapters).

Chap. 8:   Some search engines and subject directories let you focus your search with --------- operators, like "this AND that" or "this NOT that."   Tor F:  The text says acquaintances, family and coworkers do no make very good research sources.  The text says people may start with encyclopedias or even --------  for initial information on a topic, but research can't stop there.   After people have referred to general sources like those noted in the previous question, research can't stop there--there are two basic sources to tap for research:  ------ and people.   Of these two sources for research, you should start with --------.   The facts, statistics and other information to support assertions in our speech are referred to as “----.”  Some search engines and subject directories let you focus your search with ---- operators, like "this AND that" or "this NOT that."   T/F samples:  The text says acquaintances, family and coworkers do not make very good research sources.  The text says information found on government web pages are owned by the public and thus do not need to be cited in a speech.     Generally speaking, primary evidence is better than secondary evidence.   When making a list of sources at the end of your speech outline, our text notes that --- and --- styles are the ones most likely to be used in the context of a speech class.   When you say in a speech, ‘a study reported in the Journal of Medicine last year found that assertions implying one in 168 children in the United States have some form of Autism is grossly distorted,’ you are ------ evidence in the speech.

Review terms and ideas we may have covered:   What is the Johari Window?  What is dialect compared to an accent?  What is a lectern compared to a podium?  What is 'libel?'  defamation?  What is a 'tort?'  Who can sue for libel?  Does law or ethics give us more speech freedom?  What constitutes plagiarism in a speech?  5 steps of public speaking, encoding, decoding, channel, feedback, noise.  What is 'evidence?'  Where do we find sources for a speech?  Citing sources in a speech.  Number or references and making a reference list.  ORGANIZATION:  review main ideas, remember transitions, remember attention-getter and overview in introduction.  Specific purpose and thesis statement.  DELIVERY:  varied inflection instead of monotone or constant vocal pattern, varied rate, varied projection / loudness, avoiding 'clutter words'-- (um, like, you know); posture and movement (don't shift feet, don't lean on the lectern): appropriate and comfortable movement and gestures, appropriate eye contact, avoiding distracting mannerisms (swinging arm, foot tapping, hitting the lectern, nervous laughter....)



SECTION TWO FOR EXAM TWO            

Sample test questions (Section Intro and 9-10):  Introduction, p. 119 -- see four phases of the creative process in Chapter 5 and review these concepts...Preparing a substantial public speech is not a mechanical act like assembling a toy, but a(n) ----- act in which you create something that did not exist before and no one but you could have designed exactly in this form. (and) The four phases of the creative process are -------.   Why do they say frustration is an inherent part of the creative process?  The analysis and synthesis of information have appropriately been called ------ .   ------- is "the remolding of the parts (of a speech) into a new whole--truly creating or inventing an interpretation that did not exist before.  On the 'Speech Structure Flow Chart, what do they call the element of a speech that we have called a 'transition?'  What are the 'four basic stages' of organizing your speech?  Like topic selection, the process of assembling ideas begins with ------ .  Instead of starting the creation of a speech with a full-sentence outline, we instead benefit from creating a -------, that uses words or phrases to identify the essential points the speech will cover.  ------- is a visual method of showing how your ideas relate to each other (as part of outlining your speech). Clustering, mind-mapping, branching and ballooning are various styles of -------.  ------- are "primary ideas, those that are central and indispensable to the development of the thesis (of a speech)."  To decide which main points to include in your speech, first look at your -----, ------, and ------- .  Although the rule may sound arbitrary, our text notes that every speech should have from ---- to ----- main points.  Ideas of equal importance or of parallel logical function are called ---- points, and points of lesser significance that support, explain, or contribute steps of logical development to other ideas are called ---- points.   Once the main ideas of a speech are selected, you should arrange them in an order that will -------- .  Of the several different patterns of speech organization, a ----- pattern might divide topics by past-present-future.  Of the several different patterns of speech organization, a ----- pattern arranges points according to a relationship among physical locations, and is often based on geography.  Of the several different patterns of speech organization, a ----- pattern is the most frequently used speech pattern. (etc.--similar questions on other speech patterns).  T or F:  When you arrange subpoints in a speech outline, they should be repeat the same pattern within the subpoints as you used for the main points.

Sample questions (11-12):  The ------ is an indispensable tool of speech organization that provides a detailed, logical plan for a speech.  T or F:  The authors of this text recommend including the introduction and conclusion within the speech outline, noting that this assures the speaker will appropriately connect these to the body of the speech. In standard outline breakdowns, roman numerals are used for main points, and ------- are used for the first level of subpoints.  To show logical relationships of points, each subordinate idea should be lined up with ------- of the point it supports, not the labeling numeral or letter.  As English teachers remind us, always develop each level of subordination into at least ----- parts.  In a full-sentence outline, the thesis statement, the main points, and at least the first level of subpoints are stated as ------ sentences.  The ------- outline may take extra work, but they are important tools in preparing informative, invitational, evocative and persuasive speeches, since they are an effective tool for demonstrating logical relationships in the speech. (etc. -- BUT (etc.)-- as always, go through each chapter and look for facts, terms, and lists -- these examples will often be test questions--this is intended as specific help in preparing for an exam. AND REMEMBER--questions may be reworded, so study the concept, not just the word, and anything else covered in class or the reading could be a question, not just these provided.

Sample questions (13-14):  T or F:  Your speech begins before you start speaking.  A speaker should move confidently to the position from which he or she will speak, -------, then begin the speech.   Your immediate purpose as you begin your speech is to command ------- .  You should begin your speech with a(n) -----, a few opening sentences to capture your audience's interest and invite them to listen to you.   Telling a joke, relating a story, making a startling statement, or asking a provocative (and rhetorical) question are all examples of -------- used in a speech introduction.  T or F:  A good speaker will always begin a speech with an attention-getter that is catchy and clever.  Establishing a good relationship with your listeners and motivating them to think about your topic are what the text calls orienting them ---------- .  For the most part, people learn better when they are ---- than when they are ------ .  Acknowledging your audience's expertise, admitting your own fallibility, and asking for the audience's help will allow a speaker to create a sense of ----, even in a speech that is primarily a monologue.  T or F:  Saying "I'm a little nervous being up here" or "I'm not really the one to be telling you this" help a speaker develop credibility with the audience by revealing they're human just like you.    The ----- step is one of the most overlooked in speech making, but is the pivotal step of the introduction.  'Connecting with your audience' consists of what six points (beginning with 'establish credibility')?  In the ----- orientation to prepare listeners to listed to your speech, you show your listeners how you will approach and develop your topic.  ----- etc. ---
The ----- of a speech ties all the threads together and leaves the listeners with a sense of completeness or closure.  In all but the shortest of speeches, you are well-advised to include ---------- .  If a summary of main points used in a conclusion seem to mechanical, the speaker might instead choose to ----- instead of restate exactly.  Every speech should include a summary, except -------- .  Making sure your audience has been touched by your speech, that they understand what they need or you have included what you want them to feel, is the concept of providing -------- closure.  Part of the psychological wrap-up of a speech can be a direct appeal, especially is a speech to ------- .  T or F:  A statement of your own intent related to the speech you just presented will weaken your appeal, especially when presenting to an audience primarily hostile to your viewpoint.  Every speech needs a powerful, memorable closing, what is called the ------ .  etc.

Click this link for some extra Test 2 preparation

Chapter 27:  A(n) ------- is an object or entity that adds another communicative dimension beyond your vocal content and physical delivery.   The previous question would be the term used by our text, but in class we have also called these ----- . Presentation aids used in a speech that are independent of each other are considered ---- , while ----- presentation aids are an integrated sequence of similar items produced by the same technology (p. 347).  The first step of using presentation aids is to consider your speaking goals and decide whether aids will help you ----- .  The two most obvious reasons for using presentation aids are ---- .  Other than PowerPoint, the text says there are other other presentation software packages available including ----- from Apple and --------, an online presentation tool, that offers some interesting alternatives to the standard linear-thinking typical of PowerPoint.   The text discussed what three ways of representing something with a visual presentation aid?  Each kind of chart or graph is best suited for a particular kind of information. For  instance, in general, ------ are better for showing trends than bar graphs, and ------ are better for showing relationships of parts to a whole than line graphs.  In the guidelines for how to Make Aids Clear and Manageable, the text says (a) Make Sure the Audience -------, (b) Keep Visual Aids ---------, (c) and Design Visual Aids for --------.     The 'a few simple things you can do to smooth your aids’ introduction into your speech include: (a) ----- with your aids, (b) Have your aids ------, (c) Maintain -----, Keep ----- while using your visual aids, and Don't let ---------------. Our reading reminds us that video clips have become a popular strategy to jazz up a speech--but unfortunately ----------- .   The reading says USA Today’s graphics are examples of ------, which are graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge, and that have grown in popularity in recent years because they are able to communicate a great deal of information with minimal text.
and anything else covered in class or the reading could be a question, not just these provided.

Sample questions (30 - 35)
Section 6 of the box reminds us that 'any message or text takes on meaning from the circumstances that surround it--the _______(p. 379).   Chapter 30 reminds us, with any presentation, to think about the ----, whom will you be speaking to, where willyou bespeaking and what will you speak about, etc. and then to identify the ----- associated with the speaking context.  Within the dimensions of a speaking situation: (a) contexts can be ---- or ----, (b) can be ----- or -----, (c) can be ------- or ------, which have to do with the role of the participants, and (d) contexts vary depending on who holds -----------, (e) differ depending on ---- of participants, and (f) differ depending on -------.  International audiences is one example to remind us that speaech contexts also vary according to ------. 
What are the guidelines for educational presentations?
Chap. 32:  Of various business approaches to 'public speaking,' ------ include things like workshops for new employees, training sessions for  customers, or classes for people who have recently been diagnosed with a disease or condition.  In developing these types of presentations, trainers must conduct a --------, which is an extension of the same sort of careful analysis you do in preparing a speech, essentially like an audience analysis for a speech.  A needs analysis developed for a training presentation should identify the -------, or --------- you are aiming for.  What elements make a training program LIKE a speech?  What elements make a training program NOT LIKE a speech?  A good workshop or training program always includes ----- and --------.  Another expectation of a training program is that ------- will be used extensively, and they will be clear, useful and professional.   What part of a training program establishes a contract between the speaker and the audience?  Unlike a speech, the conclusion in a training program has a summary of what has been covered, but also does what for participants?  etc. in Chap. 32
Be able to identify various types of 'ceremonial and social context' presentations, like eulogy, etc.
Continue through major terms and ideas in remaining chapters in section.




SECTION THREE FOR EXAM 3       (Extra Flash Cards Review)

Sample questions (15-16):  Which should come first: (a) setting up the basic structure of your speech, (b) selecting evidence / supporting materials, or (c) practicing delivery?  Definitions, examples, statistics and testimony all fall into what the text calls ------- for your speech.  We refer to supporting materials as -----, even though it may be impossible to ever prove a point completely.  Supporting materials should be first selected based on -----, then on ------, and finally based on ------ .   In helping the audience understand our terms and ideas, a ----- definition is also known as dictionary definition.  Defining a term based on how it is drawn from root words in an older culture is a(n) ----- definition.  Telling how an object or concept works or operates provides a(n) ------ definition.  "hen I talk about a charismatic leader, I mean someone like Martin Luther King, Jr." is the use of a definition by ------- .  (etc.--see all types).  T or F:  Examples should be used frequently throughout a speech.  When no factual example exists, a speaker may use a(n) ----- example.  When a succession of quick references will not illuminate a point for your listeners, the text suggest you develop the example into an ------.     "Systematically collected and classified examples, like '75% of Texas inmates do not hold a high school diploma' or 'the average worker spends about two hours of every workday on the computer' are ------- evidence.  Test of 'who why, when and how' are done before using what kind of evidence?  To avoid misleading statistics, the mean number used to refer to some group of numbers may be more useful if you also include the ----- and the ------.  Two out of three dentists recommend CleanBright toothpaste is a useless statistic if the number of dentists polled was three shows the problem with the fallacy of the ---------.  Statements from other people to get our points across are called --------.   Testimony may either be cited directly, as a ---------, or may be --------- in a speech.  In citing authorities, if you ask 'does the authority have access to the necessary information,' or 'is the person recognized as an expert on this subject' would be ways to evaluate the authority's ---------.  Giving credit for the sources of your supporting materials used in a speech is referred to as -------- your sources.    T or F:  When citing sources in a speech, the text suggests a speaker use a standard style of introducing each source, to allow listeners to more effectively understand the information.  --------- is the process by which we come to understand something new, through analyzing and synthesizing what we already know. When reasoning links data used to a claim made a ------- is the part of the argument that creates the connection.    Of the four patterns of reasoning, ------- is the simplest and most common, and consists of collecting enough instances to establish a pattern.  The conclusions drawn from induction are always ------- rather than absolute.  Of the four patterns of reasoning, ------- consists of making verbal statements, or premises, according to formal rules.  "Establish that a relationship exists between two terms, establish the actual condition or status of one of the terms, and show how a conclusion about the other term follows' are the steps for using ------- reasoning in a speech.  -------- reasoning is the backbone of all speeches that deal with policy and problem solving.  To prove a ------ relationship, you must show both a concurrent presence and a concurrent absence.  When we reason by -------, we compare two things that can be placed in the same category.  In dealing with reasoning fallacies, the ------- fallacy substitutes character assassination for solid refutation or persuasion.  The ------- fallacy consists of creating a flimsy argument, attributing it to the opposing side, and then proceeding to demolish it.   (etc. of these, like)...   ------ reasoning assumes as one of its premises the very conclusion it sets out to establish.  A ------- entails making a premature inductive 'leap' -- like the relationship of Groundhog Day to weather.  Once you have your form of reasoning developed for your speech, you must then organization points to show ------- relationships.    etc.

Sample questions (17-19):  In striving for clear language, using the proper words and not overusing metaphors allow us to be --------.  In striving for clear language, the more ----- and ------ your words, the less abstract the ideas are and the less is left to your listeners' imaginations.  T or F:  In reminding us to use appropriate language, the text reminds us there is a standard style to use in public speaking.  ------- is a special vocabulary used primarily within a particular group while ---- consists of words or phrases, often playful, that are nonstandard substitutions for more formal language.  A ----- makes a comparison between two things ordinarily dissimilar while a ------ creates a figurative equation that implies two unlike things are the same.  "Imbuing objects or ideas with human qualities to bring them to life" is called -------- .   Deliberately overstating something in such a way that is clearly fanciful and not meant to be taken seriously, like saying 'this test will be the death of me' is called ------- .   Saying the same sound in sustained sequence (like those words just listed), when the repeated sound is consonants, this is -------, and when the repeated sound is a vowel, this is -------.     ------- is used to contrast two ideas and sometimes implies word pairs, like "Not ..., but ..."  or  "Never..., unless ...".    T or F:  Our books reminds us that, if we do a good job catching a listener's attention at the beginning of a speech, the attention will be yours until you relinquish it at the end.  "References to actual people, events and places" are examples of the ------- attention-getting techniques.  " "Pros and cons, opposing viewpoints, and competing schools of thought" are examples of the ------  attention-getting techniques." (etc. of these).  "Make sure it fits your personality and the situation, it can be powerful but tricky, and it can ease tension and deflate opponents" are facts about using ------ as an attention-getting technique.  "Questionable attention 'grabbers,' letting a story or joke take over a speech, or letting audience participation cause you to lose control" are common attention ------ to avoid.  Concepts like image, personality and charisma relate to a speaker's ------- .  T or F:  The text says humility creates a better credibility with an audience, so a speaker should avoid providing much information about their own qualifications as (s)he speaks.  Saying "Oh, one thing I forgot to mention when I was discussing ..." hurts your speaker credibility by showing the audience that your material is not well ------- .  You can build speaker credibility by saying 'some studies indicate that an alcoholic can return to social drinking' or 'I recognize the contributions the administration has made to social welfare programs, but..." --showing the audience that you are presenting a ------ and ----- analysis.  T or F:  Delivery issues are less important than content issues in building a speaker's credibility.  (etc.)

Sample questions (chaps. 20-22):  In relation to motivational appeals, generally you can strengthen your speech by selecting main points, supporting material, and language that engages your listeners' --------.    When using gory traffic wreck or diseases organ images to sway and audience's opinion, the text reminds us when adding emotion to a speech to remember the old adage, "Although some is good, ------- is not always better."   Our text shows a model of Maslow's -------, and describes it as the best-known way of classifying human needs.  Whereas emotions and needs are considered innate, ------ are judgments or choices made by individual, where we evaluate concepts, people and such as wise or foolish, just or unjust, and so on.  ----- values are those so central to a person that to change them would amount to a basic alteration of that person's self-concept, ------ values are those that are influenced and shared with groups and individuals most significant to the person, and ----- values are the more-or-less-incidental evaluations--easily made or changed.  In trying to make a link for listeners, the ------ of your speech are the questions that must be resolved in your listeners' minds before your speech purpose can be met.  Among the informative speech strategies, anxiety, confusion, irritability, anger at the source and complete tune-out may be consequences of -------- .  Of the principles of informative speaking, moving from the ----- to the ------, more than the others, ties directly to audience analysis.  One of the organizers for a speech is a ------, which point the way you are going and can serve as a reminder to where you have been.  T or F:  Using acronyms can be an effective informative speech organizer.   T or F:  A speaker should avoid overuse of examples since they can detract from effective organization.  Comparing the known to the unknown in a speech, like saying 'a nuclear plant is like a steam locomotive' then explaining how, is the concept of using -------- .    What are the three kinds of propositions in persuasive speeches and what does each mean?  What are the three categories of listener attitudes, and what adjustments does a speaker do to accommodate each?  What are the four development / organizational patterns we said we would choose from for our persuasive speech, and what are the basic components of each?  The ------- is one of the most widely used organizers for persuasive speeches--this psychologically-based echoes and anticipates the mental stages through which your audience progresses as they hear your speech.  The first step of the 'motivated sequence' approach for a persuasive speech  is ------ .   The ------- step in 'motivated sequence' approach reminds us that it is important that the audience has a  vivid picture of the benefits of agreeing with the speaker.  'State the opposing view fairly and concisely, state your position on that argument, document and develop your own position, and summarize the impact of your argument' are steps of the ------ organizational pattern for persuasive speeches.   (etc.)
Remember on all these -- follow the standard study and review guideline: go through each chapter and look for facts, terms, and lists -- these examples will often be test questions--this is intended as specific help in preparing for an exam. AND REMEMBER--questions may be reworded, so study the concept, not just the word, and anything else covered in class or the reading could be a question, not just these provided.)

Sample test questions (23-26):
The ------ theory of delivery (in public speaking) emphasizes speech as an interaction of ideas as opposed to a performance.  T or F:  The theory noted in the previous question encourages speakers to not develop 'performance' aspects in their presentation.  The single most important delivery goal for any speaker is to internalize the concept of speech as ------- .  A good speaker learns to assume the role of ------, confident, poised and expressive.    A(n) ----- speech is delivered using notes, a(n) ----- speech is off-the-cuff, a(n) ----- speech is written out and read and a(n) ----- speech is written  down , learned and delivered word-for-word.  T or F:  A well done extemporaneous speech will have no elements of any of the other three modes of speaking.  and anything else covered in class or the reading could be a question, not just these provided.)

Chapter 27:  A(n) ------- is an object or entity that adds another communicative dimension beyond your vocal content and physical delivery.   The previous question would be the term used by our text, but in class we have also called these ----- . Presentation aids used in a speech that are independent of each other are considered ---- , while ----- presentation aids are an integrated sequence of similar items produced by the same technology (p. 347).  The first step of using presentation aids is to consider your speaking goals and decide whether aids will help you ----- .  The two most obvious reasons for using presentation aids are ---- .  Other than PowerPoint, the text says there are other other presentation software packages available including ----- from Apple and --------, an online presentation tool, that offers some interesting alternatives to the standard linear-thinking typical of PowerPoint.   The text discussed what three ways of representing something with a visual presentation aid?  Each kind of chart or graph is best suited for a particular kind of information. For  instance, in general, ------ are better for showing trends than bar graphs, and ------ are better for showing relationships of parts to a whole than line graphs.  In the guidelines for how to Make Aids Clear and Manageable, the text says (a) Make Sure the Audience -------, (b) Keep Visual Aids ---------, (c) and Design Visual Aids for --------.     The 'a few simple things you can do to smooth your aids’ introduction into your speech include: (a) ----- with your aids, (b) Have your aids ------, (c) Maintain -----, Keep ----- while using your visual aids, and Don't let ---------------. Our reading reminds us that video clips have become a popular strategy to jazz up a speech--but unfortunately ----------- .   The reading says USA Today’s graphics are examples of ------, which are graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge, and that have grown in popularity in recent years because they are able to communicate a great deal of information with minimal text.
and anything else covered in class or the reading could be a question, not just these provided.

Sample questions (28-29):  In adapting to your audience, 'use more humor and novelty' and 'make your delivery more animated' are suggestions for what to do if -------- .    In adapting to your audience, 'stress common ground' and  'appeal to your audience's sense of fair play' are suggestions for what to do if -------- .   'Check the room  and equipment for possible sources,' 'ignore fleeting or low-level,' and 'incorporate them into your speech' are some of the tips for dealing with -----.  An intentional interrupter to a speech is called a(n) ------- .   Speakers will run into ----- hecklers more than ----- hecklers.  Chapter 29 reminds us that the ------ period is a great opportunity to further the goals of your speech.  T or F:  Delivery skills are less significant during a Q&A time than during the actual speech.  When a speaker is asked a question he/she does not have an answer to during a Q&A time, (s)he should ------ .  "The person who wants to give a speech" and "The person who wants to pick a fight" are listed under the guidelines for how to ---- during the Q&A time.  and anything else covered in class or the reading could be a question, not just these provided.)