RTV 440 Videos --  Notes/Review Information

Broadcast News Training Series

Maricris Briones, Greg Liggins and others talk about basics of newsgathering, shooting and editing.

Broadcast News Part One "The Concept" 

1.  What does the story focus, or concept, drive you as a reporter to do?
2.  What is a focus statement?  Why is it important?
3.  What does an Assignment Editor do?
4.  What does Maricris Briones say she does first on a story?
5.  What are the two different types of newsrooms?  Which type is ours?
6.  What is the purpose of the staff meeting?  What goes on there?
7.  What sources of information are used in the news meeting?
8.  What is the first question all TV reporters face?
9.  What is perishable video?  When do you shoot it?
10.  What are the wires/news wires?
11.  What are sweeps?
12.  What is enterprise reporting?  Who gets to do it?
13.  As Karen Reuter starts to interview the person at the fire --
       --what instructions does she give him related to the 'point of view' of the shot?
       --related to the camera angle, why does the photographer pedestal up with the camera?
       --does she record all her voice tracks before editing the story or during the edit?
14.  "All you hard work goes for naught if you don't make _____________."
15.  Why is it important that you have the experience of doing everything?

Broadcast News Program Two  "Research"

1.  What are your sources of research for a news story?
2.  What is the biggest mistake you can make as a broadcast journalist?
3.  What is the first thing to do before going out to do your reporting?
4.  What does it take to do good interviews?
5.  Why should you question everything?
6.  What is a beat check?
7.  What can a journalist never be afraid of?  Why?
8.  Why does Larry King say in interviewing the less you know the better?
9.  What is the main resource for newsgathering? 
10. What can you do if you cannot cooperation from an interview subject?
11.  What is a PIO?  How do you work past this person as a source?
12.  What does Linda Ellerbee say is an absence of a question?  What does she
        say about 'there's no such thing as a bad question'?

Part 3     Field Work

1.  What are the extras required for TV reporters versus radio or newspaper reporters?
2.  What does Greg Liggins say about the use of nat sound versus reporter track or sound bites?
3.  What does the 'one-man band' reporter have to train himself/herself to do?
4.  What does Maricris Briones (and later Greg Liggins) say about finding the right 'shooting ratio?'
5.  Karen Reuter says a story should have a beginning, a ------ and an --------.
6.  Note the Brian Pogue tips on shooting:
    --white balance
    --checking audio, including 'both microphones'
    --rule of thirds
    --framing interviews/look space
    --framing interviews/tightness of shot
    --cut off lines/head in a box
    --zooms and pans
    --wide/medium/close (sequences)
    --handheld microphone
    --unwanted sound
    --in-camera editing
7.  What is a 'shooter?'
8.  How is shooting correctly related to good editing?

Part 4     Writing

 1.  How is the who/what/when/where/why different in broadcast than in print? (also noted later)
 2.  How is the broadcast lead different than a print story lead?
 3.  Mitchell Stevens lists what tips about broadcast writing style?
 4.  He also says what about words and pictures?
 5.  What is logging?
 6.  How do the pictures dictate what you write?
 7.  What is 'track?'
 8.  How do you tell a complete story in a short period of time TV news allows?
 9.  Why is short not cute or fancy?
10.  Why is it important to read your copy out loud?  How does it relate to writing style?
11.  What are the correct verb tense and voice in broadcast writing?  (note the writing examples)
(Notice the reporter 2-shot in the firefighter interview)
12.  What is the lead?  What are its characteristics?  Why is it important?  How is the lead-in related/important?
13.  How do these issues relate to good story writing and development?
14.  What does Mitchell Stephens say makes a good sound bite?
15.  What is the most important part of the story?

Part 5    Editing  
1.  How does the editing of news stories vary by markets and stations?
2.  What does Maricris Briones do as soon as she gets back to the station after shooting a story?
3.  What does Mitchell Stevens (bald guy) say is the sequence a good reporter or producer follows?
4.  As you're doing the narration, you have to have what is mind?
5.  A reader is also called what?  What other types do they list?
6.  What does going live srom the scene require?
7.  Steven Jennings suggests using two different tapes in shooting for what two purposes?
8.  When is it o.k. to use back-to-back sound bites?  How is the lead-in different?
9.  Where should you have natural pauses in your audio?
10. The most common errors and the most irritating thing is ------ .
11.  Why is nat sound important?  What is the rule of thumb in mixing nat under foreground sound?
12.  What is backtiming? 
13.  Why is the 2-shot an establishing shot?
14.  (Notice Karen Reuter's sample package's cutaway shots and cut-in shots)
15.  How is nonlinear editing better than linear?

Civic Journalism:  New Questions, Better Stories 
How can questions from a reporter 'open up' instead of 'shut down' an interview?  How can a journalist uncover better stories by listening for patterns instead of just quotes?  What one question can improve almost any interview?  "I didn't get a quote, I got a -------."   What are open ended questions?  How should they be used in interviewing?

Civic Journalism: A Practical Guide 

Framing a Story Video
1.  Journalists who live at the extremes and visit the middle do what compared to those who live in the middle and visit the extremes? What does this mean to how a story is framed?
2.  What is a frame?  What stories have them?     3.   What typical frames are there?
4.  Does covering '2 sides of a story' give balance to a story? What else should be done?
5.  What is the alternative to a story with conflict?    6.  How do you find third places / other voices? 
What questions should we ask ourselves?  How does the play with a nude scene fit into this?
7.  What does it mean 'more heat than light'?   8.  What does 'start where citizens are' mean?
9.  What is ‘visual storytelling’ as they describe?
    CHANGES IN FRAMING/Applied to Politics
    Start where citizens are             People’s Issues
    Talk to People                          Compare and Contrast
    Politics as Problem Solving      Candidate’s Stands
    Pull Out the Essence                 Reader’s/Viewers Questions
     What’s your stake?
10.  How does all this compare to the 'sweeps hype/roller coaster coverage'?

Finding Third Places
1.  How can a journalist use third places as a reporting tool?
2.  What is a third voice?   3.  What kinds of information can you find in third places that you can't get from
public officials or experts?    4.  What is a 'stakeholder'?  --How does that related to any particular local
news story--like Huntsville tax increases or annexation of outlying areas?  How might the city describe the
impact of a new shopping center built next to your house?   How might you and your  neighbors describe the impact?
Who are other stakeholders who might have a different view?

Tapping your Community  Video
1.  How do journalists find news?  2.  What can journalists
do to get a more complete picture of what's happening inside communities?   3.  What are five of the best sources to contact for information in Commerce / Hunt County?  What kinds of information would you get from each?  4.  Identify the neighborhoods of Commerce.  Which do you know about and which do you not?  Identify ways you can learn more about each of our community's neighborhoods.    5.  Identify what you believe is Commerce's biggest issue.  Map the problem by different stakeholders--what components can you place on your 'map'?

Local News Video One

1.  Who is the News Director?  2.  Get names of some other people:  Sterlin Benson Webber--reporter; Wanda Johnson Stokes--producer; others--(list)   3.  What kinds of things happen at the start of Hour 1 in getting the 5:00 news on?  4.  What is the IFB box S. B. Webber asks about?  5.  What company had just bought the station?  6.  How do employees react to the News Directors' 'sermon'?   7.  What obstacles does S. B. Webber get in interviewing school board members?  8.  What is the lawsuit about that's going on?  9. What do they decide to do as a special report related to this case?  What does the dissenting guy say?  What do they ultimately do?   Is this special a 'civic journalism' approach--how or why?  10.  How well does the special do in the ratings?  11.  What is the breaking story that happens in the middle of all this?  12.  What is said about how well the News Director and other receive ideas from reporters (enterprise reporting ideas) about possible story ideas?  13.  What is a PIO?  What does the one on camera say about spoon feeding the media?  14.  What does the producer (Wanda) say about the way the station will become a contender? (right before she is shown leaving)  15.  How sincere is the News Director in how he talks to her before she goes.

Local News Video Two  

1.  What kind of market is Charlotte described as?   2.  What message does the reporter (Beatrice Thompson) say News Directors 'don't get' and why don't they?    3.  After the United Way meeting, why does the guy in the car (Rolfe Neill) say companies actually get involved in their civic community/what do they do or not do?     4.   What point of view does the community have about the firing of Beatrice Thompson?  Why does she say she's being let go?      5.  What does she say about a 'license to make money'?    6.  What does the say about the quality of young/new reporters compared to how she sees herself as a reporter and to the Hypocratic Oath and to the ideas of consultants?     7.  What does Rolfe Neill say about African Americans voice compared to the power of money?      8.  Why is the school court case such a significant story?  How does it related back to Part One and WCNC's low-rated special report?  9.  What does Keith Connors tell Beatrice Thompson about her reporting/based on what she says?  10.  How does the station's meeting with irritated black viewers go?  Are they (station management) wrong, or are the community members wrong?    11.  What about the woman's point about 'transients telling them what to do'?--What does that refer to?

Propaganda Model of News 
1.  Is the media liberal?  Why / why not?   2.  Who is Noam Chomsky?  What is the best technique according to Chomsky that the media are not controlled by dominant economic interests?   3.  Do journalists control the manufacture of news?  Who does if they don’t?    4.  How do media content ‘filters’ affect news? --ownership? --advertising?--the news makers/sources? --the news shapers?   5.  What is a ‘think tank?’   6.  What is ‘flak?’  How does it work within this model?

Manufacturing Consent  
1.  Where does the title Manufacturing Consent come from?  2.  What must a government do to keep control once it can no longer do so by force?  3.  How does Noam Chomsky feel about ‘public personalities?’  4.  Who does Chomsky say makes the decisions about how U. S. society works?  5.  What two classes of society does Chomsky see within ‘manufactured consent?’   6.  Which media are the ‘agenda setting media?’  7.  What ways is this done?  (here's the list they put up quickly--selection of topics, distribution of concerns, emphasis, framing of issues,  filtering of information, bounding of debate within limits)--what do these mean?  8.  Who owns the media?  9.  What does manufactured consent mean?    What does agenda setting mean?  After viewing this, write a half page on your notes assessing--What do these mean related to news reporting or other media content?

1.  What are examples today of ‘incivility?’   2.  Why did the one person say we shake hands?    3.  What is the ‘broken window’ theory?     4.  Lords & masters over us -- when they start listing 'who's over them'--here's the translation: king, governor of the country, chief constable, sheriff, deputy, parson, their master    5.  What began in 1875?  6.  Dr. Laura says what about Lord of the Flies related to our society?  7.  What does Richard Dreyfuss say about drugs and society?  8.  How did the Vietnam war lead to incivility?  9.  What did the Nixon Watergate scandal do to civility?  10.  How does baseball/sports event reflect the change in society’s formality?  How related to rudeness? continue making notes of major points....after viewing, write a half a page on your notes in which you asses what this means related to news coverage, the media, the media content, and the audience.

Local News 3--The busing aftermath and the hurricanes
Keith Conners says what made them lose $48,000 in the last two months?  Which newscast is the group trying to fix?  What arguments related to pace and quality are made?  What kind of negative ideas do some of them have about their viewers?  What's wrong with judging news by ratings?  How does this relate to civic journalism?  What mistake does the guy on the beach (Mike Redding) make while waiting for his live shot? Why does he get mad?  How much do they plan on paying a new producer?  What national news person do they run into inside the hotel?  Who else does Redding say he admires?  Keith Conners says, when big stories break you have to be -----, you have to be ------, and you have to be ------, How well did Sterlin Benson Webber handle the thrown-together live shot?  What are whips?  How does the staff respond to Keith Conners criticism?  How does he react to that?  How is their roundtable in-studio group discussion a civic journalism philosophy?  What is Keith Conners looking at on the computer while hurricane coverage is on?  What does he have to say about it?  How do they disagree about Mike Reddings continued live shots from the hurricane?  What does 'booking time at 5 and 6" mean?  How does the news meeting near the end go (where Redding gets 'senior drivers')?

Newsroom Ethics  
Car in the Canal, Airport Security, Vulgar Coach, Tower Climber, etc.