THE 597 Study Guide





Week 1           

Filmmaking Chapter 1 study questions  (study these plus any other chapter or class-covered material)  _______ is the most important aspect, but also the cheapest, of making a movie.      What are the three paths you can take when embarking on the journey to the perfect script?  What should you do to find a good writing partner?    Writing a script 'on ________' means you write it for free.  The first step to writing a solid movie script is to have a __________.  Almost always mutually exclusive, when you set out to make your movie from the script you have, you will be working toward a movie that follows a revenue-generating formula or you will make a movie for __________ sake.  Making a commercially-viable movie is based on what might be called an 'AIS' test--which stands for _______ (it's not in this text--you'll have to ask).    Giving the go-ahead to start pre-production work on a movie is called ___________ .    What is the reality of 'how Hollywood works?'  Our text says the number of features produced in the U.S. each year is about ___, but only about ____% of those get picked up for distribution. The first real step in making a movie is to start at the _____.  Your goal in making media content is to get it seen and distributors are ______ between you and the audience.  Where do ideas for movies come from?  The _______ rule for Jason Tomaric is that when he comes up and idea for a film, he has to be _____________ with it before he'll go any further to develop it or flesh it out.  (p. 9)
What are the movie idea concepts to avoid?  What does it mean to to 'option' an idea for your script?  ... to 'option' a script?  What are the steps to the story structure of your script?  ______ stories involve made-up characters in made-up situations and are based more on imagination than fact, while _____ stories are true stories based on actual people and events.  What are the various genres?  Of the main 'formats' of stories, ________ is produced either by hand or using computer technologies and ____________ are intended to study a subject, occurrence, theme, or belief--to explore or arrive at a conclusion about the subject.  Of the main 'formats' of stories, ________ are designed to advertise a product and _______ are typically marketing or how-to pieces that are often an outstanding way to make money.   Of the main 'formats' of stories, ________ are the riskiest style of production--rarely recouping the money invested, and ______ are highly stylized promotional videos for music artists.  Short films are commonly just called '________.'   What are the good and bad points about making short films?  The way a story is told is its _______ type.  What are the most common plot structures?  The single most important element to have in any story is ________. (p. 17)   The four basic classifications of conflict are ---. He suggests the title of a film should be _____ (how many?) words and should invoke a sense of the story's ___ and ___.  The ______ of your story is based on 'what is the moral of the story?'  The ________ is a 15-25 word description of the good guy, the bad guy, the setting and the conflict and is the basic premise of what the movie is about.  The three components of story structure are divided into three acts: (1) setting up ----, (2) the ---- appears, and (3) the main character has to ------ .               
Filmmaking Chapter 1 study questions starting at page 22... Movies have a 'primary' or ____ plot of the story but also four or five smaller ________ that are interwoven throughout the movie.  More of the typical formula of a movie are the four or five _____ in which the audience is startled or shocked by a turn in the plot.  In Jason's notes, what does he admit about writing, and within this what many of his friends agree with him about?  A ________ is a short story version of a movie that can be as little as two pages or as many as sixty pages, written like writing a short story, and where each time a new character is introduced, HIS NAME is written in all CAPS.  What are the writing tips for the treatment?  For a person writing a screenplay, once the treatment is finished, the next step is to develop the story into an _________, like the one shown on page 27.  _______ make up a scene, ________ makes up ________, and sequences make up a movie.  What is a A-story versus a B-story?  What is a story arc?  On page 28, the author says on of the strongest techniques for creating realistic characters is to ----.    What are the three primary categories of characters?    Of the three primary categories of characters, the ---- is the literary opposite of the protagonist.  What is essential about characters, and especially for the main character, to make a story work?  In Jason's Notes, he says he finds it helpful to graph a character's emotional arc in much the same way as ----- .   What common dialogue problems does he note?  ---- is a character's history up to the time the story takes place.  -----  is  the term for  meaning found in a scene beyond the words of the written text, as noted at the bottom of page 33.   Once you have a strong treatment and detailed story outline, and are confident in each plot arc, subplot and character arc, you're ready to ------ .   Formatting must be exact for a film script, so he recommends ----- as the software to use to get it right.  When writing the script, write in --- tense and ---- voice, use ---- verbs, and write only what can ------ .  The ----- module on www.filmskils.com provides a complete tutorial on film script formatting.  What are the tips for writing a script based on keeping the budget low?  What is 'leap frog' writing?  What is involved and what are the realities of rewriting?  What is added about writing in the Jason's Notes on pp. 40-41?  What should you do as you finish your script?   (ETC>continue making notes and studying.)


Week 2   (1/24-28)

Study terms and concepts from class notes regarding visual storytelling, shot composition, camera movements, transitions, etc., plus Chapter 11:   _______ is the shooting of any scenes that involve the main actors, which is the majority of a movie and involves the director and first unit crew.    DP stands for __________ .     The ________ unit camera crew shoots insert shots, plates for visual effects, stunts, and any other sequences that do not involve the main actors.  What are the realities of a film-shoot production schedule?   A typical production day lasts ____ hours, not including lunch.    _______ is a typical official call time when the crew is ready to work and, based on that _____ is the standard completion time--but, if shooting continues beyond that time, ______ is served and ________ begins for the crew.  (p. 238-242)->Generally, when shooting a new scene, the process can be broken down into what five stages?      ----- a scene is the process of doing a walkthrough with actors' positions and movements within the set.  Why does blocking help speed up shooting and minimize extra takes?   Note the term 'coverage' on p. 239--film shoots shoot a master scene (wide shot), then go back and shoot close-ups, over the shoulder, etc. shots--all of which are 'coverage.'  Once a scene has been blocked, actors go to -----, the DP works with the electricians and grips to -----, and ----- are used on the set to see 'actors in position' for camera focus and lighting issues.   In Jason's Notes, what shocked him the first time he visited a professional movie set?  When it's time to shoot a scene, the ----- calls for quiet on the set and gives the initial commands.  Any time we shoot, we let the camera roll a moment before and a moment after the action so the editor will have ----- to work with when cutting the film.  p.244->In the order of on-set commands, (a) after the 1st AD says 'roll camera,' the camera operator replies '------,' and (b) who calls Action to start the scene? (look at all other similar facts)  What safety issues are commonly a part of shooting?  The ------ is the position on the crew that maintains logs of each take, its length, any problems, how much of the scene each take covers and similar needs to keep track of the shoot and related continuity issues.  'Continuity' is this sense means ------ .  (ETC> continue making notes and studying.)



Week 3   

Chapter 12:    The ------ is the master storyteller of a movie (and we also note this as 'the author of a film is the -----).  The two primary jobs of a director are ----- .   Among the steps for a director in reading a script, he or she must first  have a complete understanding of --------, then be able to identify -------, then begin studying the ------- .     A(n) ----- could be defined as 'a list of camera setups and angles for each scene to be shot.'  The ---- shot is a wide shot is a wide shot that covers the entire action of the entire scene so completely that even if you didn't shoot any other angles, the audience would be able to understand what the scene is about.  OTS or O/S refer to ------ shots.     ------ are shots that cover action already covered in the master shot, but are closer and draw the audience's attention to an action or detail.  Special dolly, Steadicam or jib shots would be classified as ----- shots.   A(n) ----- shot are usually of unrelated people or objects in a scene that can be cut to at any time in the scene--used to avoid things like jump cuts or continuity lapses.  (The line producer noted on p. 257 is in charge of overseeing the production budget and the day-to-day operations on a shoot and may also be the UPM).  What does a director have to keep in mind when planning the coverage for a scene?  What determines pacing?  Sketches each setup to show specific plans for framing, camera moves and actor movements are called ------- .    Instead of sketching scenes, previsualization software can help you create an -----, or animation of each scene, allowing the director to plan for camera coverage, editing and framing before being on the set to shoot.  Note the tips for storyboarding.  What is the actor's responsibility?  What is backstory?  What is a director's role with actors?  In Jason's three-rehearsal process, the ----- is the actors' and usually the director's first time hearing the script read aloud and, for movies, often the actors' first times to meet.  (always keep reading and noting notes--not overlooking box inserts like 'Jason's Notes.')   (p. 271)-> The ----- of a scene might be described as 'although the character is doing one thing, his actions are motivated by another' -- and it's also found within a situation where a character means something other than what he's saying.   T or F:  In Hollywood productions, actors rarely rehearse.    ---- is the process of determining actors' positions and movements around the set in relation to camera, light and sound placement and issues. (more may be added, but continue making notes and studying the full chapter.)

Magic of Movie Editing :
You should jot down names of people, films noted in the video, terms they use, etc. – all the way through.  Look for items like these, plus similar content throughout:  Note names of early movie pioneers and significant early films.  What is seamless editing?  What were the basic rules of moviemaking?  What did French directors do that violated those rules? What makes a movie a movie?  Rob Cohen  says " ------------"  is why people like movies."  What does Quentin Tarantino say a frame is?  ------ was the first to use the close-up shot in a big way for moviemaking, and also made such techniques as flashbacks and parallel action some of the standards of moviemaking.    Editor Mark Goldblatt says D.W. Griffith established 'classical film editing' that depended on use of the -------- edit, in which action would be be fluid and moving, masking the cut so the audience wouldn't notice it.  Why will directors like Spielberg and Scorsese not let any actor into the Cutting Room, but Sean Penn will?  What did Jody Foster learn about the editing process once she became a director? Editor Walter Murch gives what kinds of editing tips?   In talking about the 1999 movie Election, director Alexander Payne wanted to cut the scene where Matthew Broderick’s character is confronted with rigging the election like The Good The Bad & The Ugly—but then paid his editor $75 to let the editor cut it as a fast montage—Payne then states that good editors are like sly ------.   The ---------------- effect is named after a Russian filmmaker who took one shot of a single actor staring emotionless at the screen and intercut it with three different scenes: a bowl of soup, a grieving woman at a coffin, and a little girl with a teddy bear.   Sergei Eisenstein saw the meaning of a film, not as the shots themselves, but as their --------.    Quentin Tarentino says -------- is the first real director, killing himself in his staging, and his camerawork, but “all at the service of the scissors.”    (ETC> continue making notes and studying.)



Week 4   (begin 2nd exam content)   Chapter 13

Chapter 13 study questions:    ---- is the art of lighting and photographing a scene.   Cinematography can be broken down into two parts: ----- and ----- .    The term cinematographer is often used interchangeably with DP, which stands for -----.   The ----- is often the most skilled person on the movie set.   T or F:  When hiring th DP for a production, Jason suggests in most situations this person should be a film school graduate.   p. 296->A good DP must have what two basics skills?  What is involved in finding a good DP and doing the initial work with them?  The DP's primary tool is the -----.  What does Jason say about automatic camera functions and shooting handheld shots?  A ---- lens has a fixed focal length.  The lower the number on a fixed lens, like 12 mm versus 120 mm, the ------ the angle.  ---- lenses feature variable focal lengths because of additional pieces of glass added to the lens.  In Jason's Notes, he says 'the biggest secret to making Hollywood-quality movies lies in -------- .'   What are the five rings of a lens?  'Pulling focus' on a lens gives us what we call a ----- focus.  What position on the set pulls focus? p. 304->The longer the focal length, the ---- the depth of field.  The ------ distance of a lens, when set, gives the largest possible depth of field and it is half the focus setting to infinity.  The ----- is the measurement, in millimeters (mm) from the optical center of the lens to the imaging plane.  The ----- is the range in front of a lens in which objects are in focus.  How do you: create a shallow depth of field, a deep depth of field, shift the depth of field?   Jason's  Notes on p. 307  notes the subtext of  a scene may be portrayed  less through the performances, but instead through the setting of the ----- .  In the Jason's Notes at the bottom of p. 307, how does he say he used focal length to help support the story in the film  Fred and Vinnie?  Mathematically, an ------- is the focal length of a lens divided by the diameter of the aperture opening.  Practically opening the iris by one f-stop, from f5.6 to f4, for example, --------the amount of light let into the lens.  The more open the f-stop iris setting, the (deeper or shallower) the depth of field.  ----- are a visual indicator to indicate the areas of a frame that are overexposed, they are not recorded with the image. One of the easiest ways to understand exposure is to look at the ---- system, created by Ansel Adams, which provides a visual reference for the brightness values of objects shot on video or film, and where Zone 0 is ---- and Zone XI is ----- .  The design on most lenses makes extreme close-up shots impossible, so lens manufacturers add another piece of glass in the lens called -------, allowing the operator to focus on objects within a few feet of the lens.  Think about our two Canon HD cameras with missing lens caps while you read Lens Care on page 311.  In film cameras, the ---- is a rotating disc with a pie-shaped opening that allows light to pass through it to expose each frame; in video cameras the function is digital rather than mechanical.  ---- is to video what film speed is to film cameras, a setting that boosts the sensitivity of the imager.  ------ a video involves holding up a white card under the light source you'll be shooting in, zooming in on the card to fill the frame, then pushing the appropriate button on the camera or CCU, and this must be done each time ------- change.  Placing a light blue (like Columbia Blue card in front of the camera to do what is described in the previous question is called ---- the white balance, or 'lying to the camera' as a means of intentionally changing the visual look of shots.  The ------ is the tint of light, a range of reds to blues that are present in the light source in which you shoot.  Standard indoor tungsten lights used in the TV studio have a color temperature of ------°Kelvin.  An HMI lighting instrument create a ------°K color temperature, while the average noon color temperature is said to be about -----.  It critically matters that images shot look correct, so as noted on page 31, one of the most critical tools on a set is a properly calibrated --------.  (We will deal with lighting later--so skip pp. 316-332 for now, picking up again at Framing and Composition)
Filmmaking Chapter 13 study questions starting at page 332...
One of the biggest cinematic differences between amateur and professionally produced movies is how ------ .   The shape of the frame itself in video or film is ------ ratio.   The intended aspect ratio of DTV related to a digital CCD is ------, while the 4-perf transmitted area and Panavision 3-perf 35mm camera aperture as a standard is _____:1.    The 35mm TV transmitted area aspect, referred to a 4:3 for NTSC TV, is also often listed as ______:1.    Note aspect ratio conversion terms, like letterboxing and pan & scan.   A good list of shot composition terms to be studied in pp. 336-344 (more samples may be added here).  Among the cinematography techniques, when you're directing on the set, always block the ----- shot first, covering the entire action of the scene from beginning to end.  Letting the camera roll several seconds before calling 'action' and 'cut' will give you the necessary ----- needed for editing.  ----- are forms on which you record the shot number and description, focal length and exposure, and any comments, as you are shooting.  'When covering a scene' he is talking about shooting what we called ------, and what is suggested about this shooting?  How do you get a 'film look'?  (note--unless specifically approved, do not shoot in 24p for project work for our class)  The ------ is the brightness of the midrange values in the image.  What two specific production positions, and what else, will be marked on the clapboard?  The 'clap' action of the clapboard is done to sync ----- and ------ of the scene.  In some situations in our TV shows, we shoot MOS--man on the street bits, but in the audio of a film shoot, MOS stands for ---- and is indicated with the clapboard by ------ .  What can a smart slate do that a dumb slate cannot?   P2 cards are a proprietary solid state memory card made by --------.  (ETC> continue making notes and studying.) 



Week 5         Chaps. 2 & 3

Chapter 2:   Giving the go-ahead to start pre-production work on a movie is called ___________, which then allows you to move into preproduction.  ----- is the extremely organized, methodical process similar to designing the blueprints for building a house.  ** The quality of a production is directly proportional to the amount of time taken in ----, the most important stage of production.**   For a movie, ------ is the process of breaking down the finished script and preparing all elements of the movie for production.    Where will your home office, and props, wardrobe, art direction elements and production equipment likely be if you're shooting a low budget movie?  Research during pre-production includes determining the best ----, exploring the ----- in your shooting area, and preparing to make a product that distributors will ------ .  Editing, sound mixing, color grading and visual effects are some functions in the ---- stage of making a movie.  Movies are made or broken on the strength of their ----- .  Since making a movie involves a tremendous amount of paperwork, it is necessary to hire a(n) ----- to ensure you are protected from liability and that you ------ and ------ .    Writer ----- guarantee your right to produce a writer's work and defines who owns the ----- and the ------- .   Upon completion of the project, your proof to potential distributors that you hold the ownership to a script and movie is the Chain of ------ .   WGA stands for ----- .  SAG stands for ---- .  You secure the copyrights for the script and the movie by registering them with ---- and you should also register the final script with the ------for proof of date of completion and ownership.  What are the liability issues that might occur in making a movie that you want to assure you are not personally liable for?  Note the facts about SAG, location agreements, dealing with legal disputes, and distribution.

Chapter 3:  The video seen in this section gives us a realistic sense of the challenges of dealing with multimillion dollar productions as discussed in this chapter--be able to discuss those issues, like 'pay or play' contracts, etc.  Of all the art forms ---- is the most expensive, and ----- can be the most difficult aspects of getting it done.  How does accounting differ with a Hollywood production versus an independent film?  The picture insert on p. 56 shows that the ------ is the position in a movie project who must account for every penny spent.  How many typical Hollywood directors does he say were able to start by making multimillion dollar movies?  Where should the money come from to make a movie?  When SAG actors work nonunion projects, they work under a ----- agreement, working lower than union scale or even for free.  What are some of the tricks or techniques for 'working cheap' in a low budget production?  What should be negotiated when looking for things like equipment rental, locations, and wardrobe & props?  p. 59--which crew positions are likely yo have their own equipment?--do they provide it for free, as part of their employment?  Are postproduction costs typically high, or quite low?  Why is production insurance necessary?  How does artistic vision interrelate with budget?  What is a 'second meal'?  When budgeting a movie, you should allow an additional ---% on top of what you think you'll need.  The key to keep the budget low is to restrict the number of ----- (p. 61).  See above the line and below the line descriptions.  ---- and ---- are long-standing organizations that protect the rights of, monitor the working conditions of, provide benefits for and guarantee minimum levels of payments for their members.  DGA stands for ----.  WGA and SAG, see above.  What are some of the typical issues in dealing with unions and guilds?  What are the standard union rules that a low-budget movie director should still follow, even when working with non-union workers?  In Jason's Notes and elsewhere, what does he say about working with SAG?  Minimum payments are commonly called ---- when referring to the likes of SAG's regulations for payments to union members.  What are the five different types of low-budget agreements might fit into SAG's allowance for independent filmmakers?  ----- is the primary labor union that represents writers for TV shows, documentaries, movies and a variety of other media forms.   ----- are payments for the re-use of movies, TV programs and the like, paid to writers and other above-the-line people.  What should 'The Business Plan' include?  What are three main business formulas' used to produce low-budget movies?  Starting production on a project is a process of 'starting a business,' and there what seven major types of businesses recognized by law in the U.S.?  (ETC> continue making notes and studying.) 


Week 6          Chapters 4 & 5

Chap. 4:  Jason recommends ----- software in this chapter for writing and formatting the script.   T or F:  The writer must number each of the scenes prior to submitting a script to a director.  How are scene deletions or additions handled in terms of numbering scenes and pages?  What system is used to keep track of different versions of a script as rewrites occur?  Once a script is properly formatted and each scene number, the next step is the ----- (p. 79).  The process of going through every page of a script and identifying every prop, location, character....stunt, animal, etc. to be acquired by each individual department is called the script ------- .   Step 2 of breaking down a script is to create ------- ,  Step 3 is the determine the number of ------, and Step 4 is the creation of the -------- .   What are the four major factors to take into account when determining shooting days?   Hollywood movies shoot ------- pages of the script per shooting day, but most independent movies must shoot more like ------ pages per day.  One of the biggest mistakes you can make is ------- .  Each strip on a production board represents ---- .    ------ time is the amount of free time from the time a production wraps to the call time the next shooting days, and union guidelines require a minimum of ----- hours of this.  Common industry practice and crew day rates provide for work days of ---- hours.   A production MUST schedule a major meal every ---- hours, so a full day production that starts at 5 am and schedules a one hour lunch must start lunch at ----- (what time) and must end the regular time shoot by ----- (what time?).   A ----- move occurs when the production changes locations during the course of a shooting day.  (ETC> continue making notes and studying.) 

Chap. 5:  Since 'anything can happen on a movie set,' Chapter 5 is about the need for -----.  The most common type of insurance policy, it protects you as the producer / director and your production in the event of property damage and claims for personal injury on the set.   ---- insurance protects the production company for certain expenses incurred due to the death of, illness or accident to an insured actor or director.   Especially important if shooting on film instead of video, ---- insurance covers you if the film is ruined at the lab, if there is a problem with the film stock, or if the film is lost in transit, like during shipping.   ------ covers both employees and volunteers who work for you, should they be injured on the job and it is calculated as a base percentage of payroll, required by state law.  E&O insurance stands for ------, and protects you and the ----- for issues like copyright infringements or extras who did not sign a release form.    (ETC> continue making notes and studying.)   And note these laws for filmmakers.

Week 7              Chapter 6     Mid Term Exam this or next week  (includes Chapter 6) 

Chap 6:    (related to the bottom of p. 107 'Contact the local film commission,' see Your Property in Films and 'Permanent Sets' and Location Services and Dallas Film Commission) Movies can be shot on a ----- where sets are constructed and the environment can be completely controlled, or at an existing ----- that meets or can be altered to meet requirements of the story.  ------ locations is the process of researching and looking for places that fit your vision of the setting of your story.  Middle of page 107, what does he say is one secret to getting to use locations for free?  How was the author able to shoot his first feature, Clone, at more than 48 locations, all of them free?  ------- are entities set up by states, and also in some cases by cities, that help filmmakers deal with local laws regarding film production, tax incentives for shooting, coordination with fire, police and such.  Besides the basic ideas noted in the previous question, film commissions also provide what other kinds of services?  The book says typically the -----, the -----, the gaffer, the key grip, the production designer and the location scout all visit prospective locations together.  What should this group do when scouting a location?  The author says, as part of 'what to turn off while shooting,' put ----- inside when turning off a refrigerator to remember to turn it back on at the end of the day.  What do you have to do about art, photographs, logos or other copyrighted material located at your location shoot?  What kind of locations should you avoid?  What are the three major things that are components of securing a location?  What 'Community Relations' issues might be involved?  What are the filmmaker's obligations and 'code of conduct'?    (ETC> continue making notes and studying.)




Week 8             Chapters 8 & 9

Chapter 8:  first are various crew positions--The ------ oversees the entire production, sometimes multiple production at the same time, but is not involved in the daily operation of a film project.  The ----- is responsible for finding a script, attaching a director and actors, securing financing, coordinating the hiring of cast and crew, supervising production and post-production and assisting with sales and distribution of the film.   The ----- is responsible for daily operations of the film production, working closely with the UPM,  and approves any and all expenditures.  The ----- is not so much an assistant to the director as much as he is in charge of running the set, much like a stage manager's duty in theatre.  The ---- maintains logs of each take, its length, any problems, lenses and filters used, how much of the scene each take covers and similar needs to keep track of the shoot and related continuity issues.  (ETC> use p 155 for definitions of other major crew positions).  The ---- is responsible for editing the soundtrack of the movie.  The ----- artist is a sound effects artist who is responsible for recreating and recording the normal, everyday sounds is a scene.  In setting up various budgets, one step above the Ultrasmall Crew Structure is the -------, that has departments, but that are often run by only one person.  In the crew structure of the previous question, the average cost of the crew, with no fee factored in for you as the director, is about ------ per day.  In looking to hire crew for a film project, the author says beware of "---------" if you go looking for graduates of film schools, where they may have the tendency to think they know better than anyone else.  In looking to hire crew for a film project, the author lists what three web sites he suggests using?  In looking to hire crew for a film project, the author suggests asking for what from the local film commission?   In looking to hire crew for a film project, the author says attending ----- is a great way of networking with other independent filmmakers.  A collective sample of a crew position candidate's work is called a ------ (p. 159).   In paying crew members, the ----- is a contract between the production company and the crew member that states the terms of employment.  When crew members work on a full-paying or union job, their daily rate usually covers a ____-hour day, and it is customary to day ___ times the hourly rate for any time over this number of hours.  What other payments might a crew member receive?  ------ payment contracts are based on crew members being paid after a film is sold and only if it makes money.  If actually being paid neither during or after the production, crew members may work for ----, which is the listing of their name and job title in either the opening titles or closing credits of the movie.  ---- are contracts between the production company and the crew members, identifying jobs, working dates, pay rate and extra payments.  Review crew wages, 163-165.  What are the benefits and drawbacks of working as a freelancer?  Of the two traditional ways of working in the film industry, which is more common for most positions?    (ETC> continue making notes and studying.)

Chapter 9:  Jason starts this chapter at the top of p. 170 noting what common misperception of filmmakers?  Choosing a ----- and ------ is one of the most important decisions  you'll make when selecting gear for your production.  What are the facts related to 'video vs. film'?   The types of film stock Tomaric says are available are Super8, ----, ----, 35mm and -----.   'Single-perf' means ---- and 'double-perf' means --------- .   Of the various film formats, ---- is the primary format of choice in professional filmmaking.  The 35mm full camera aperture aspect ratio in 1.33:1 (4x3), but is typically matted to -----.  Standard 35mm film shooting runs --- frames per foot, ----- frames per second, for ---- feet per minute.  (look closely at issues here regarding cost of shooting on film) Once you've chosen the film size, you next choose the -----, or ASA of the film stock.  The correct crew position to decide about your lightning and in relation what speed of ASA you need is the ---- (p. 175).  Today many cinemas show movies using ----- instead of playing back the movie on a film projector.  Once a film is shot on location, the exposed film stock is taken to a lab to be developed, generating what is called a -------, also called dailies or a ------ print.  On high budget films, once a movie has been shot, a copy of the negative film that has been used and developed is edited to preserve the integrity of the original negative and create different cuts of the film--a process called ------ or negative matching, creating the only master of the movie.  Since there is such a great risk of loss by initially only having one master of a movie shot on film, filmmakers make a copy of the negative--the interpositive or -------.   Once a master positive copy of a film is complete, a ----- process is used to transfer the movie to video.  EDL stands for -----.  If a film was shot without being properly exposed, if the lab brightens the film it is called ---- or forcing the film; if the lab darkens overexposed film, it is called ---- the film.   What are the benefits and drawbacks of shooting on film?  What are the benefits and drawbacks of shooting on video?  What are the issues with old analog video formats versus the new digital ones and what are the issues with SD vs. HD?      (ETC> continue making notes and studying of all this chapter.)



Week 9                     Chapter 17

You have to think back to The Magic of Movie Editing here (shots, the frame, Kulechev effect, role of the editor, etc.)
An artist in his own right, the ---- of a film is tasked with assembling the rough footage in a way that fills the director's vision.   The biggest disservice a director can do to an editor is ----- .  At what point does an editor start editing?  Why is an editor's demo reel harder to evaluate that a cinematographer's or a production designer's?  In Jason's Notes, what distinguishes an editor from a button-pusher?  NLE stands for -----.  The older system of editing before NLE was ----- editing, where footage was edited by linking two VTRs.  The three major NLE systems listed in our text on p. 399 are Final Cut Pro, ------, and ------- .   Complicated NLE effects may require additional ----- time, or time for the computer to calculate and complete, the effect, rather than being able to create it in real time.  In NLE work, your ---- is like the film camera negative--it IS the movie and likewise needs backup.   FTP stands for ---- .     ----- footage and music are collections of music, footage, animations and graphics that have been pre-produced by others and licensed for you to use within your production.  The first stage of editing a movie is called the -----cut, it is the longest version of the movie, containing all filmed scenes.  In the assembly cut of a movie it is common for ------, -----, and ----- shots to be missing, so black title cards may be inserted in their place.  What is the role of a good director during the editing process (p. 407)?  What tips should an editor follow during the Assembly Cut?  What should the director do once the Assembly Cut is complete?  The next edit after the Assembly Cut is the ------ Cut, similar to the rewriting process on the rough draft of the script.  In the Act Breaks of a 90-minute movie, Act I should end and the conflict be introduced at the ____-minute mark and the turning point should occur at about _____ minutes.  The rough cut is an outstanding place to drop _____ into the movie, since they can often pull a scene together, but nothing pulls the scene together like a -----------.  After testing the rough cut of your movie with small audiences, the ----- cut is done, a process of technically polishing every frame of the movie, making sure every edit is flawless.  Once the edit is 100% complete, the producers will ---- the picture and the movie will now be given to the composer, sound editors, colorists, Foley artists and ADR editors.  All positions working on the locked picture will reference the -------, a numerical numbering system that gives each frame its own distinct number.  ETC> continue making notes and studying of all this chapter--concepts of editing, eye-trace, continuity, script supervisor and editor, editing dialogue, montages, motif, b-roll, L-cut, cross-cuttting, color timing, titles, safe zone, compression, etc.



Week 10                  Chapters 14 & 19   

Chapter 14:    Audio is ----% of the moviegoing experience.   ---- is nothing more than changes in air pressure that originate from a vibrating source.  Sound waves are measured in increments called ----, ---- for short.   The range from the lowest sound level to the highest in an environment or system is the --- range.  The number of cycles per second of a sound wave is the -----, that determines the pitch.  When the true curves and nuances  of a sound wave encoded onto  the recording medium, like tape, is an ------ recording, while ---- recording samples the audio waves and encodes the information into binary code.  Of the various mic polar or pickup patterns, ------ mics capture sound coming from all directions, ----- mics make a heart-shaped pickup pattern, and --- mics have a narrow pickup pattern in front of the mic of 5 to 25 degrees.  ---- mics are clip-on mics with a very tight cardioid pattern.  What sounds are known to be problematic during a film production?  Why does sound recorded during a film shoot often found to be unspectacular during post-production?  What are the two ways to record audio when shooting with a digital camera?  Professional audio connectors are known as ----- connectors, as pictured on p. 368.   ----- sound means the audio is recorded to a device other than a camera during filmmaking.  What are the techniques for proper use of a boom pole?  Most dialogue on a movie set is shot with a ----- mic suspended over the actors' heads with a boom pole.  Some of the most common quality shotgun mics come from companies like Audio-Technica, ----- and ------.   T or F:  The author or our text says lavaliere mics should never be used in moviemaking.  What are the two major components of a wireless mic system?  ----- sound in moviemaking terminology is background sound of a location, one category of which is -----, noted in Chapter 19 as 'the indistinguishable murmur of people in the background of a scene.  What does he reveal in Jason's Notes about the 'real sounds of a noisy supermarket' in his short film The Overcoat?  Extras in a scene, in order to get the actual, needed dialogue recorded correctly, must act as if they are talking but in fact ----------.   ------ logs of a production list the audio take, the scene and setup, the timecode of each take and any notes regarding the quality of the take. 

Chapter 19:    Before beginning work on the audio of a picture, you must be completely finished with -------.  The five audio tracks in a picture are ----------.   ADR stands for ------.   For the dialogue track, when recording audio on the set, record the dialogue with as little ---- sound as possible.   EQ stands for ----- and is the raising and lowering of ------ within the audio.   The 'sweet spot' of voice / vocal frequencies is between 200 and ----- Hz.   ------- are devices that equalize the overall volume of dialogue by bringing up the quiet lines and bringing the loud volume dialogue down.  ---- are devices that prevent a sound from reaching a specific loud volume--eliminating distortion.  How does an actor ADR a scene?  How does ADR fit into low budget productions?   ---- is the sound of an actor interacting with his environment, and includes things like footsteps, doors opening and closing, a punch in the face, etc.  Of the several categories of Foley sound, ------ is the sound of an actor's rustling clothing, ----- covers all the footsteps in a movies and ------ are everything else.  Ambiance includes ----, the background noise of the set you're shooting in.  As also noted above, ----- is 'the indistinguishable murmur of people in the background of a scene.  ----- are non-Foley sounds in a movie such as explosions and gunfire.  Adding the music to the movie is called scoring, and is done typically by musicians performing in front of a playback of the scene to which the music is being added.  M&E in audio refers to ------.  ETC, > continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter.)



Week 11                 Chapters 20 and 10

Chap. 20:  Tomaric begins chapter 20 by reminding us that music needs to be directed much the same way a(n) --- does.  The final 'pieces of the pie' handed off to other departments by the director goes to the person in charge of ----, that has to be crafted so it perfectly fits the production.  The four major ways of adding music to your production are -----.    ----- music comes from companies that produce entire music libraries and who will license them for use in your production.  Royalty-free musical elements that come from software programs like SoundTrack Pro and GarageBand and that you can combine to create original music are called ------ .   The best way to score your film is to ------ .  The starting point in seeking the rights to an already-created song is to contact the ----, who is always named on the CD case.  Performance licenses are mostly handled through ----- and ------, but SESAC is also involved in U.S. performance rights.  (((Tomaric does not cover this here, but you should know:  (a) a Mechanical License is handled by the Harry Fox Agency, Inc. who licenses on behalf of the copyright owner or his agent, usually to a record company, granting the record company the right to reproduce and distribute a specific composition at an agreed upon fee per unit manufactured and sold [layman's terms--you want to record a song someone else has written, you get a mechanical license], (b)  a Synchronization License: a music publisher issues licenses as copyright owner or the owner's agent, usually to a producer, granting the right to synchronize the musical composition in timed relation with audio-visual images on film or videotape [BUT this does NOT grant the right to the original sound recording], so... c)  a Master Use License grants the right to synchronize the musical composition in timed relation with audio-visual images on film or videotape of a specific recording -- in other words, the owner of the sound recording--usually a record company--gives the license holder (the filmmaker) the right to use a recorded piece of music in a media project, often a film, TV show, commercial or similar other productions. )))      On p. 471 he notes that any music produced after ----- (what year) should be expected to be copyright protected (it is not necessarily copyrighted, as the book says it would be) and ANY USE of any copyrighted song--even "Happy Birthday to You," or if a character whistles a few notes of Michael Jackson's 'Billie Jean" etc.  Music written and performed before 1920 is one category of what is called music in the -----, which can be used freely without any legal concerns.  On p. 473 Jason's Notes, what does he remind us about piracy and making a living in this industry?  ------ a film is an important process in the composing process, where the director and composer go through the movie and write down when (specifically, to the precise frame) each piece of music needs to start and stop.  Composers hate them and directors like them, a ------ is a musical score the director edits into the movie using a preexisting movie score or classical music, helping the director see how the music affects the scene. MIDI stands for ---- and is a computer interface that allows a composer to map various sounds to individual keys on a keyboard, allowing the keyboard to play the sounds of a variety of music instruments and even sound effects.  ETC. > continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter.)

Chap. 10 ideas:  first and foremost--be sure you have watched the required video.  IN THE VIDEO, they say the first person to have the credit as Production Designer was ----- for his work in the movie -------.  The video describes three 'art' components of Production Design:  -----, ---- and -----.   The ------ of a movie is the person who creates the environment in which the characters interact.  As a department head, the Production Designer answers to whom?   The Production Designer manages what departments?  Why is building a set better than shooting at a real location?  How does blocking relate to production design?  Why are set walls built several feel away from studio walls?  Be able to talk about building sets, establishing a movie's 'design' and the production design process.  What about props, the property master and how wardrobe and the Costume Designer fit in?  ETC. > continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter--there will be more than this from Chap, 10 on the tests)

Chap. 18 ideas:  VFX refers to ------- .  Visual effects are organized into ----- and ------- .     --------- is the process of using flat images, photographs, animation, film or video clips and layering them into existing footage.  ------- involves modeling, applying textures, lighting and animating a 3-dimensional object in the computer so that it can be viewed from any angle, creating, in most instances, a life-like, photorealistic image.  A 'fix it in post' attitude means what and causes what?  CGI stands for ------- .    ------ shots as one kind of visual effects include already photographed shots that are altered, added to, or subtracted from.  The ----- technique requires a compositor to meticulously cut a subject out, frame by frame, from a non-greenscreen frame.   The term ----- refers to a technique done by compositors, used to add existing set pieces or environments to scenes.  ------ involves the layering of multiple elements on top of existing footage, OR 'is the process of digitally layering multiple flat images or video clips together to create the final shot.   ----- is a technique in which images are reshaped, altered or adjusted within the frame without additional compositing.  The compositing software that we use is --------- while another commonly used other one from Adobe is called ---------.   ---------- is the art of creating objects, setting lights and moving a camera--all within the virtual world within the computer rather than actually doing it, using such programs as Maya and LightWave.   The first step in creating a 3D animation is to ---- it, a process of taking rudimentary primary shape shape and molding it into a 3D mesh or wireframe skeleton.  Wireframe mode, texturing, color, reflectivity, specularity, transparency, texture, lighting, animation and render are all the steps involved in creating a realistic -------.  The crew position in charge of VFX is the ----- .   Define similar terms:  blue-screen / green-screen, etc.  And be able to talk about setting up FX in pre-production as well as issues during production. ETC>continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter.


Chapter 7 sample questions:    ---- are the life blood of your story (movie). Producing a movie that contains a ----- is one of the biggest determining factors in negotiating a profitable distribution contract.   The casting department is led by the ---------.    T or F:  An independent film working on a small budget can do just as well without investing in the high cost of hiring a casting director.  The company ------ in Los Angeles will create a detailed breakdown of a script and write a brief character description for each role, then submit those to agents and managers throughout the industry.  The first step in hiring a name actor for an independent film is to -----.   T or F:  Name actors are usually not interested in character-driven independent films like your low-budget movie.  If you have to hire SAG actors, try to hire ones that are -----, allowing them to work on non-union contracts.  T or F:  Having a name actor in a movie means it will be a good movie.  Getting name actors in your movie will help attract ------.    T or F:  Name actors are always good actors.   You should consider hiring a name actor in a role that may only require ----- (how much time?) of shooting--up to no more than about ---- (long long?).  You may also have a better chance getting name actors if your shoot close to ------.   Through whom do you make contact when trying to hire an actor?  Why won't many agents and managers even consider a low-budget movie for the actor they represent?  What person on your staff can be extremely helpful in finding undiscovered talent?  ----- is the process done by the casting director to audition the thousands of potential actors and narrow the list down to finalists for the roles.  You should avoid casting ----- because the expectation if you do is that the quality of your movie will undoubtedly suffer.  You should also avoid casting ---- because the assumption is they will have more of an 'over the top' rendering of the role than you need for a movie.  What are the two approaches to casting a movie if you can't afford to hire a casting director?  Once you have posted character descriptions with online resources, Tomaric says you will immediately have what number of interested actors?  What does he suggest you first look at to narrow down the field?  A ---- represents actors and models and assist filmmakers in finding the right actor for a part, then they negotiate payment terms for the actor.  If you can't find a 'normal' auditioning location, Tomaric suggests trying to book ---- or ----, and to NEVER hold auditions in -------------.    In an independent film project, you can expect to schedule about ---- actors to audition per hour and that about ----% scheduled will not show up.  In professional auditions what happens to an actor to fails to arrive at his/her scheduled time?    ------ are scenes from the script you want each actor read.  Many casting directors will hire a(n) ---- to read opposite those auditioning, to prevent having to read lines him/herself. What goes on during auditions?  What are the warning signs during auditions?  Which round is the last audition?  What happens after auditions?  > continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter.



Chapter 15 sample questions:

Chapter 15 sample questions:         ----- makeup (or beauty makeup) is noneffects makeup designed to maintain the actor's fleshtones, minimize oil and shone that show up under production lights, and help facial features stand out on camera.  Most makeup is applied so the actor looks ------.   Although makeup artists on a low budget movie might work for free, they still expect to be, and should be, compensated for ------.   T or F:  A character's makeup should be consistently the same throughout a movie.  During production, before asking cameras to roll the 1st AD will often call for "--------" which gives the stylist a chance to touch up the makeup (p. 381).   How does makeup relate to continuity?  Of the various kinds of makeup, ---- is extremely thick makeup used for theatrical applications to make facial features stand out, ----- is lighter than pancake and usually translucent, ---- adds a touch of color to an actress's cheekbones, and ----- is a powder that is tinted to match the skin tones and is used to reduce shine.   ----- are foam latex appliances that are glued to an actor's body to create simple effects like burns or scars, or major effects like turning an actor into an alien.  Among the 'special effects makeup' Tomaric suggests ----- can be made with corn syrup (Karo syrup) and food coloring, ---- can be made using unflavored gelatin, and ---- can be done using baby oil in a spray bottle.  > continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter.

Chapter 21 sample questions:  You've made a film--now, how do you make money from it? 
------ is the duplication, advertising, and promotion of a film to theatrical, television, and home video markets, both domestically and internationally.  Tomaric says most filmmakers spend massive sums of money and time on a movie only to discover there's no -----.   A smart movie maker sets up and conducts meetings with domestic and foreign distributors before -----.   What things should the movie maker ask in these meetings?  In Jason's Notes he says the rules of producing and selling a movie are a lot like the rules governing -------.  What are the five things distributors are looking for in a movie as a viable product?  You should begin the marketing of a movie before -----.  Why are distributors 'truly the Great White sharks of the entertainment industry'?  How do foreign sales companies sell films to international distributors?  What are the six major film markets?  Domestic distribution involves selling your film in what country(ies)?  What are the three primary markets for your film, thorughout the world?  Movie posters are also called ---- art (p. 487).  Low-budget posters for a movie indicate a ------ and can damage distributor interest.  In the key art for your movie, lines like (from Ghost) 'You Will Believe' or (from Alien) "In space, no one can hear you scream' are called --------.  A poster for a movie should include ---- at the bottom and the ----- so people can see the trailer.  Distributors says the the two most important aspects of marketing your fil are the ------ and the ------.    In shopping your movie to distributors or promoting your talents to producers, few people in Hollywood will actually watch your ----- but they will watch half of your -----, so it has to be good.   The trailer should entice people to --------, not tell them --------- .  In building a story arc within a trailer, the only thing from your movie that will be missing is the ----, since that's what you want the audience at your film to see.   > continue making notes and studying of all content of the chapter.

Linked Reading
#1:  We're first reminded that for some people, “visual storytelling” means photographs. For others, it means -----  or -------- .   Broadcast journalism students are often taught, in journalism writing classes, "Show, don’t ------. "   Of these 10 rules of journalism visual storytelling, under rule #1 we learn, for news, the journalist behind the scene must not ----, since once you do, you've changed the scene from ----- to -----.   (ETC-->look for similar terms and content in the chapter besides these items provided.
#2: It's a short article with 21 tips--be able to answer questions about them, like once again "Show, don’t ------. "
#3: 
This article applies visual storytelling to what part of our field?   The article says you can immediately tell that ---- per cent of information sent to the brain is visual, and more than ---- in 10 people in the population are visual learners.  Why does the 'Three Trillion Dollars graphic not work?  Why does the Usain Bolt graphic work? --Be sure to click the link and see the NY Times video--this is the good visual storytelling example.    As a reminder to those working in PR, the article reminds us that ------ still remain the most cost-effective conduit for storytelling.  In the Bonus Point, we're told "if you got through reading this, chances are you didn’t notice how “long” this post is, (and) that is the power of ------ your content.  Otherwise, it's a short article with tips--be able to answer questions about them.